40 Archaeological Finds of all time

(not in chronological order)

Can you guess how many of these artifacts & sites that I’ve seen or personally visited?

1. Dead Sea Scrolls

Top archaeological finds of all time

The Dead Sea Scrolls are almost 1,000 biblical manuscripts discovered in the decade after World War 2 in what is now the West Bank. The texts, mostly written on parchment but also on papyrus and bronze, are the earliest surviving copies of biblical and extra-biblical documents known to be in existence, dating over a 700-year period around the birth of Jesus. The ancient Jewish sect the Essenes is supposed to have authored the scrolls, written in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek, although no conclusive proof has been found to this effect.

2. Rosetta Stone

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The rediscovery of the Rosetta Stone in 1799 during the French expedition to Egypt effectively began modern Egyptology by repeating a decree issued in 196BC on behalf of King Ptolemy in Ancient Greek and Demotic as well as in hieroglyphs. The stone, a stele that was used as a building material during the Middle Ages, was captured by the British in 1801 and taken to the British Museum a year later, where it remains to this day.

 

 

 

 

3. Petra

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Before 1812, Petra was one of the ancient world’s ‘lost cities’: it was known from historical references, but the site had not been located on the ground. The Swiss traveller, explorer, and antiquarian Jean-Louis Burckhardt (1784-1817) set out on a long expedition in 1810, whose ostensible purpose was to locate the source of the River Niger. In fact, he got no further than the Sudan before contracting dysentery and dying in Cairo in 1817. In the meantime, however, he had become an accomplished Arabist and recorded a wealth of geographical, ethnographic, and archaeological data in a secret journal – secret because the dangers of the Orient were such that he was forced to travel in disguise, passing himself off as an Indian Muslim trader.

Hearing rumours about a lost city, he employed a local guide and told him that he was a pilgrim seeking the Tomb of Aaron (overlooking ancient Petra). Burckhardt managed to see some of the antiquities; but he began to attract suspicion, so his investigations had to be cut short. Nonetheless, he correctly identified the site as Petra, and the publication of Travels in Syria and the Holy Land in 1822 brought the ancient city to the attention of world scholarship.

4. Chaco Culture

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Chaco Culture National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park hosting the densest and most exceptional concentration of pueblos in the American Southwest. Composing a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the arid and sparsely populated Four Corners region, the park is located in northwestern New Mexico, between Albuquerque and Farmington, in a remote canyon cut by the Chaco Wash. Containing the most sweeping collection of ancient ruins north of Mexico, the park preserves one of the United States’ most important pre-Columbian cultural and historical areas.

Between AD 900 and 1150, Chaco Canyon was a major center of culture for the Ancient Pueblo Peoples. Chacoans quarried sandstone blocks and hauled timber from great distances, assembling fifteen major complexes that remained the largest buildings in North America until the 19th century. Evidence of archaeoastronomy at Chaco has been proposed, with the “Sun Dagger” petroglyph at Fajada Butte a popular example. Many Chacoan buildings may have been aligned to capture the solar and lunar cycles, requiring generations of astronomical observations and centuries of skillfully coordinated construction. Climate change is thought to have led to the emigration of Chacoans and the eventual abandonment of the canyon, beginning with a fifty-year drought commencing in 1130.

5. Tutankhamun

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Arguably one of the most famous – and spectacular – archaeological discoveries of all time, Howard Carter’s excavation at the Valley of the Kings in 1922 propelled a short-lived and perhaps rather politically unimportant pharaoh into the history books. Tutankhamun may have died while still in his teens but his tomb had been packed with beautiful objects befitting his royal status – and, unusually, had escaped detection by robbers. Howard Carter had discovered a treasure trove of ‘wonderful things’.

“At first I could see nothing, the hot air escaping from the chamber causing the candle flame to flicker, but presently, as my eyes grew accustomed to the light, details of the room within emerged slowly from the mist, strange animals, statues, and gold – everywhere the glint of gold. For the moment – an eternity it must have seemed to the others standing by – I was struck dumb with amazement.” Those are the words of Howard Carter – the man who discovered King Tut’s tomb. They sum up far better than I can the marvelousness of this most important Egyptian discovery in modern times. The importance of this discovery to the understanding of Ancient Egyptian history is probably the greatest ever.

6. The Great Pyramid of Egypt

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The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact.

7. Royal Tombs of Ur

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Leonard Woolley’s excavations at the ancient Sumerian city of Ur in southern Iraq – or Mesopotomia, ‘the land between the two rivers’, as it was then known – lasted from 1922 to 1934. At the end of the 1926 season, working on a cemetery site containing some 2,500 burials, the excavators uncovered a deep shaft, at the foot of which lay a gold dagger with a hilt of lapis lazuli, and a gold sheath, along with a hoard of copper weapons and a set of little toilet instruments. Nothing of this quality and date had ever been found before in Mesopotamian archaeology.

8. Antikythera Mechanism

Top archaeological finds of all time

In 1901 an ancient shipwreck was discovered by sponge divers off the coast of the Greek island of Antikythera. The construction has been dated to the early 1st century BC. Amongst the finds of typical trade goods such as statues and flasks was found a fused mass of metal. For almost a hundred years after its discovery, the mechanism was regarded as a simple curiosity.

It is now regarded as an early precursor to the computer. The various cogs and wheels of the mechanism are able to calculate where stars and planets should appear in the night sky. This discovery shows not only a keen understanding of the motion of the heavens but also the ability to replicate those movements on an artificial structure. It suggests a mechanistic understanding of the universe which points to the development of science as the best way to deal with the world around us.

9. The Pilate Stone

Top archaeological finds of all time

The Pilate stone (probably the least-known object on this list) was discovered in June of 1961 near Caesarea (part of Judea) by Dr. Antonio Frova while he was excavating with his team of archeologists an Ancient Roman theater built by Herod the Great in 30BC. The stone had been reused in the fourth century as part of a new staircase that had been added later. What was significant about this stone was what the archeologists found inscribed on the side: “To the Divine Augusti [this] Tiberieum … Pontius Pilate … prefect of Judea … has dedicated [this]“. This was the first time physical evidence had been found for the existence of the Biblical Pontius Pilate. Its authenticity is universally recognized by the archeological world.

10. Nimrud

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At Nimrud, Henry Layard discovered the palaces of the Assyrian kings Ashur-nasirpal (883-859 BC) and Shalmaneser III (858-824 BC). These lay within a royal city, in use for about 150 years, which comprised a roughly rectangular enclosure measuring c.350ha in total. The site lay alongside the ancient course of the River Tigris, and was surrounded by a mud-brick defensive wall. It included a citadel crowned by a 197ft-high (60m) ziggurat. Here, successive Assyrian kings built their palaces and temples. The total population of the city may have been as high as 80,000.

At nearby Nineveh, excavated during a second British Museum-funded expedition in 1849-1851, he dug two miles (3km) of bas-reliefs and cleared 70 rooms in the palace of Sennacherib. The aim was the recovery of art objects for study in their own right, as opposed to the exploration of a site by scientific excavation with recording of features and artefacts in context.

The finds recovered by Layard included objects that have since become some of the greatest treasures of the British Museum: huge winged lions and bulls, the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, and the sculptures of Ashur-nasirpal. These created a sensation in Britain in the late 1840s.

 

11. The Terracotta Army in Xi’an

Incredible Archaeological Discoveries

The funerary army of the first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, dating to the third century BCE was discovered by a group of farmers in Xi’an in 1974. More than 8,000 life-sized soldiers, 130 chariots and 150 separate horses, not to mention countless officials and courtesans, have since been documented, although the majority remain buried underground near the emperor’s mausoleum. It remains one of the most spectacular man-made sites in the world.

12. Tomb of Philip II of Macedon

Incredible Archaeological Discoveries

Vergina is a small town in northern Greece, located in the peripheral unit of Imathia, Central Macedonia.  The town became internationally famous in 1977, when the Greek archaeologist Manolis Andronikos unearthed what he claimed was the burial site of the kings of Macedon, including the tomb of Philip II, who is the father of Alexander the Great.  In 1977, Andronikos undertook a six-week study near Vergina and found four buried chambers, which he identified as undisturbed tombs. Three more tombs were found in 1980.  The discovery was a defining moment in archeology, but the identification of the tomb as that of Philip II has been disputed.

13. Staffordshire hoard

Incredible Archaeological Discoveries

The largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon precious metalwork was found just four years ago in a field near Lichfield, in Staffordshire. More than 3,500 martial items made from gold or silver dated back to the kingdom of Mercia in the seventh and eighth centuries were excavated, with experts describing the hoard as of equal or more importance than the Sutton Hoo discoveries.

14. Baghdad batteries

Top archaeological finds of all time

In the ruins of Mesopotamia, jars were found containing iron cylinders and copper spikes. They were created during the dynasties of Parthian or Sassanid period (the early centuries AD), and probably discovered in 1936 in the village of Khuyut Rabbou’a, near Baghdad, Iraq. They are still a mystery, but speculation has brought some interesting theories. These jars were filled with acidic grape juice, voltage may have been produced. Modern reconstructions of the jars have shown that enough voltage would have been produced to allow electrical use – but at this stage, more evidence is needed. If correct, the artifacts would predate Alessandro Volta’s 1800 invention of the electrochemical cell by more than a millennium.

15. Roman dodecahedra

Top archaeological finds of all time

Sometimes archaeologists discover an artifact whose purpose is a complete mystery – but it is rare for a whole class of artifacts to remain unknown. All over the Roman world, small metal dodecahedra (date from the 2nd or 3rd centuries CE)  with circles cut in their faces have been discovered – yet it is unknown what they were originally used for. Some suggest they were used as candle holders (unlikely in an age where oil lamps were the norm), while others think they might have been aids for judging distance.

16. Ancient antibiotics

Top archaeological finds of all time

Scientific antibiotics are about seventy years old. But bones have been found in Nubia – dating from 550AD – which show traces of tetracycline, an antibiotic still used today.

How did people use an antibiotic more than a thousand years before it was discovered? Tetracycline is produced by yeast – and yeast can be used to produce beer. It seems that the ancient Nubians – including their infant children – drank beer as a medicine.

17. The Pool of Siloam 

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18. Pompeii

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Pompeii, the ancient Roman city, was buried during a volcanic eruption in 79 AD when Mount Vesuvius exploded. It was lost for nearly 1700 years and the damage done to the city was so severe that even the name of the city vanished from memory. In 1738 Herculaneum – a nearby city also lost – was discovered and then ten years later military engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre discovered Pompeii. Whilst digging in later excavations, Giuseppe Fiorelli discovered that some of the large bubbles in the volcanic mud were perfectly formed molds of the men who had died there. He injected plaster into the bubbles and gave the modern world the first look at real Ancient Roman people. Interestingly the city was full of erotic art and objects (many of which were hidden until 2000 AD) and graffiti found on a wall in Pompeii called the city “Sodom and Gomorrah” leading many Christians to believe that the city was destroyed by God in retribution for its sexual perversities.

19. Tell el-Amarna 

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The ancient site of Tell el-Amarna extends across several square kilometres of desert on the edge of the River Nile about 200 miles south of Memphis/Cairo and 250 miles north of Thebes/Luxor. Comprising monumental buildings, waterfront facilities, industrial areas, residential suburbs, and edge-of-town cemeteries, the site represents a complete ancient city of New Kingdom date (c.1550-1069 BC), preserved beneath a thin covering of desert sand – an Egyptian Pompeii of sorts. The first proper record was made by scholars of Napoleon’s Egyptian expedition in 1798-1799, and it has remained a major focus of fieldwork and scholarship ever since. Of importance was the discovery of 379 clay tablets inscribed with cuneiform script in the so-called ‘Record Office’ during the 1880s, and the yet-more spectacular discovery of the famous bust of Nefertiti in the last season of the 1907-1914 German excavations.

Tell el-Amarna was founded by the New Kingdom pharaoh Akhenaten, son of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye, husband of Nefertiti, and probable father of Tutankhamen. Akhenaten’s mission was to elevate the innovative religious ideas of his father into a comprehensive alternative to the complex theological system inherited from Egypt’s past. His aim was a form of monotheism centred on the worship of the sun-disc Aten. To break the power of traditional temple hierarchies elsewhere, he built a new capital on a virgin site, roughly midway between the historic capitals of Upper and Lower Egypt at Thebes and Memphis respectively. He called the city Akhet-Aten – ‘the horizon of Aten’. Here, a magnificent shrine could be established for the worship of Aten – with all other deities excluded from the city. But unlike other religious revolutions, which came from below, the cult of Aten was imposed from above by diktat on an essentially unchanging and resistant society. Powerful vested interests defended the old order, and the mass of the people remained indifferent. The ‘revolution’ was therefore skin-deep, and after Akhenaten’s death, the court returned to Thebes, and Akhet-Aten – Tell el-Amarna – was abandoned to the sand.

20. Mesha Stone

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About 130 years ago, a large stone slab was found in what is today Jordan, written in Moabite, a language very similar to Hebrew. Although the Arabs who found the stone decided to break it up into small pieces to increase sales, an impression of the intact stone has been made that gives us the whole text. This amazing stone tells the story of the kings of the Kingdom of Israel, called “Beth Omri” in the stone. Of course, as all nations have done throughout history—except for the Jews! —the inscribers of the stone tailor history to glorify themselves. Thus their god, Kemosh, is described as more powerful than the G-d of the Jews. But the stone confirms important details in the Bible.


 

 

 

 

 

 

21. Rapa Nui (Easter Island)

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Popularly known as Easter Island, this is one of the most isolated places in the world, thousands of miles off of the Chilean coast in the South Pacific. The most baffling thing about the island, however, isn’t the fact that humans even managed to find and settle it but that they then proceeded to construct enormous stone heads around the island.

 

 

22. Piri Reis Map

Incredible Archaeological Discoveries

Dating to the early 1500s this map shows the coastlines of South America, Europe, and Africa with amazing precision. Apparently it was constructed by general and cartographer Piri Reis (hence the name) from the fragments of dozens of others.

23. Nazca Geoglyphs & Lines

Incredible Archaeological Discoveries

Although they were literally beneath the feet of archaeologists for hundreds of years, the Nazca Lines weren’t discovered until the early 1900′s for the simple reason that they are nearly impossible to see unless you are directly above them. While there have been numerous explanations ranging from UFO’s to technically advanced ancient civilization, the most probable explanation is that the Nazca people were excellent surveyors, although why they would construct such enormous geoglyphs remains a mystery.

24. Mount Owen Moa

Incredible Archaeological Discoveries

In 1986 an expedition was making its deeper and deeper into the cave system of Mount Owen in New Zealand when it came across the huge claw you’re now looking at. It was so well preserved that it almost seemed like whatever it belonged to had just died recently. Upon excavation and inspection, however, it was determined to belong to an Upland Moa, a large prehistoric bird that apparently came with a nasty set of claws.

25. Voynich Manuscript

Incredible Archaeological Discoveries

Described as the “world’s most mysterious manuscript” this piece of literature has been dated back to early 15th century Italy. With most of its pages filled with what seems to be herbal recipes, none of the plants match known species and the language remains undecipherable.

26. Gobekli Tepe

Incredible Archaeological Discoveries

Although at first glance it may seem like nothing more than a bunch of rocks, this ancient settlement discovered in 1994 was constructed roughly 9,000 years ago and is currently the one of the oldest examples of complex/monumental architecture in the world, predating the pyramids by thousands of years.

27. Sacsayhuaman

Incredible Archaeological Discoveries

This walled complex just outside of Cusco, Peru is part of what used to be the capital of the Inca Empire. The crazy part about this wall, however, is in the details of its construction. The rock slabs fit together so tightly that it would be impossible to slide even a hair between them. It’s a testament to the precision of ancient Incan architecture.

28. Headless Vikings of Dorset

Incredible Archaeological Discoveries

While digging a railroad in Dorset workers came across a small contingent of viking warriors buried in the ground, all missing their heads. At first archaeologists thought that maybe some villagers had survived a raid and exacted their revenge but upon closer inspection things got a little less clear. The beheadings looked too clean and seemed to have been done from the front rather than the back. They are still not sure what happened.

29. Marcahuasi

Incredible Archaeological Discoveries

Marcahuasi is a plateau in the Andes Mountains located east of Lima, Peru.  The area rises over the Rimac River.  In 1952, a man named Daniel Ruzo made a remarkable discovery in the area.  He found hundreds of stone figures that resemble human faces and animals, some 90 feet tall.  The most famous formation was called The Monument to Humanity because it purportedly shows the major human races of the world.  The mountain sized rock formations of Marcahuasi have created controversy in the scientific world.  Many educated people have claimed that the structures were formed by natural erosion.

Rare Discovery

Some of the famous rock formations at Marcahuasi include the goddess Thueris the Anfichelidia, the valley of the seals, the lion of Africa, the vicuna, and the frog.  After discovering the area, Daniel Ruzo made some bizarre accusations surrounding Marcahuasi.  He wrote that the sculptures were made ??by a culture named “Masma” or “Fourth Humanity” almost 10.000 years ago.  According to Ruzo, every 8,500 years the planet Earth suffers disruptions that threaten the existence of all living beings.  Ruzo published articles stating that Marcahuasi was the site selected to preserve the knowledge of humanity.  Man-made or not, Marcahuasi remains a remarkable archeological discovery that has become a popular tourist destination.

30.  Machu Picchu

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‘Rediscovered’ by Hiram Bingham in 1911, this monumental ‘lost’ Inca citadel was built in the mid-15th century on a dramatic mountain top. Its stunning natural surroundings and awe-inspiring standing remains make this a truly remarkable site – a vivid reminder of the technological capabilities and power of the Inca Empire at its peak. Its terraced platforms and cave cemeteries allowed a fascinating insight into the lives of the 1000 or so people who had once lived here.

31.  Sea of Galilee Boat

Incredible Archaeological Discoveries

The Sea of Galilee Boat is an ancient fishing boat from the 1st century CE (the time of Jesus Christ), discovered in 1986 on the north-west shore of the Sea of Galilee in Israel.  The remains of the boat were found by brothers Moshe and Yuval Lufan, fishermen from Kibbutz Ginnosar.  The brothers are amateur archaeologists with an interest in discovering artifacts from Israel’s past.  They found the ship after a drought reduced the water-level of the lake.  The men reported their discovery to the authorities who sent out a team of archaeologists to investigate.

Rare Discovery  

Realizing that the remains of the boat was of tremendous historical importance to Jews and Christians alike, a secret archaeological dig followed, undertaken by members of Kibbutz Ginosar, the Israel Antiquities Authority, and numerous volunteers.  The boat measures at 27 feet (8.27 meters) long, 7.5 feet (2.3 meters) wide and with a maximum preserved height of 4.3 feet (1.3 meters).  Excavating the boat from the mud without damaging it was a difficult process that lasted 12 days and nights.  The boat was then submerged in a chemical bath for 7 years before it could be displayed at the Yigal Allon Museum in Kibbutz Ginosar.

The Sea of Galilee boat is made primarily of cedar planks joined together by pegged mortise-and-tenon joints and nails.  It has ten different wood types, suggesting either a wood shortage or that it was made of scrap wood.  The boat is historically important to Jews because it is an example of the type of boat used by their ancestors in the 1st century.  Previously only references made by Roman authors, the Bible and mosaics have provided archeologists insight into the construction of these types of vessels.  The boat is also important to Christians because it was the type of vessel that Jesus and his disciples used, several of whom were fishermen

32. Teotihuacan Sacrifice

Incredible Archaeological Discoveries
Although it has been known for years that the Aztecs hosted numerous bloody sacrificial festivals, in 2004 a grisly discovery was made outside of modern day Mexico City. Numerous decapitated and mutilated bodies of both humans and animals shed some light on just how horrific the rituals could get.
33. The Grauballe Man
Incredible Archaeological Discoveries
It’s not a strange occurrence for mummified bodies to be found in bogs but this body, now known as the Grauballe Man, is a bit unique. Not only is he amazingly well preserved with his hair and fingernails still intact, it is possible to reconstruct his demise from the information found on and around his body. Judging from a large wound wrapping around his neck from ear to ear it seems he was sacrificed, probably in an attempt to turn a better harvest.
34. Uluburun Shipwreck
Incredible Archaeological Discoveries

The Uluburun shipwreck is a Late Bronze Age shipwreck dated to the 14th century BCE.  It was discovered off Uluburun (Grand Cape) situated about 6 miles southeast of Ka?, in south-western Turkey.  The wreck was first discovered in the summer of 1982 by Mehmed Çakir, a local sponge diver from Yalikavak, a village near Bodrum.  Between the years of 1984 to 1994, eleven consecutive campaigns took place totaling 22,413 dives, and revealing one of the most spectacular Bronze Age treasure troves ever discovered in the Mediterranean Sea.  On its final journey, the Uluburun ship was sailing to the region west of Cyprus.  The objects aboard the ship range from northern Europe to Africa, as far west as Sicily, and as far east as Mesopotamia, exhibiting products of nine or ten different cultures.

Rare Discovery

The ship, which was about 50 feet long, was built of cedar in the ancient shell-first tradition, with pegged tenon joints securing planks to each other and to the keel.  Some of the hull planks were preserved under the cargo.  They were fastened with pegged mortise-and-tenon joints.  Upon discovery, there has been a detailed examination of Uluburun’s hull, but unfortunately no evidence of its framing.  The ship carried 24 stone anchors, which are of a type almost completely unknown in the Aegean.  The Uluburun ship’s cargo consisted mostly of raw materials and trade items.

The artifacts discovered include copper cargo totaling ten tons, approximately 175 glass ingots of cobalt blue turquoise and lavender, ivory in the form of whole and partial elephant trunks, hippopotamus teeth, Cypriot pottery, a ton of terebinthine resin in amphorae, a large collection of gold artifacts, ebony logs from Egypt, and ancient weapons.  The ship carried one ton of tin.  The tin from Uluburun is, at this time, the only pre-Roman tin with a reasonable provenance.  The Uluburun shipwreck has fed into virtually every aspect of research on trade and society in the Late Bronze Age Aegean and Levant.  It has helped historians understand the intensity of commercial trade during the Late Bronze Age.

35. Ancient Chemical Warfare

Incredible Archaeological Discoveries

In 1933 archaeologist Robert du Mesnil du Buisson was searching beneath the ruins of an ancient Roman/Persian battlefield when he came across some siege tunnels that had been dug under the city. In the tunnels he found the bodies of 19 Roman soldiers that seemingly died while trying to desperately escape from something and one Persian soldier clutching his chest. Apparently when the Romans heard the Persians digging under their walls they began digging a tunnel of their own with the idea of dropping in on the Persians from above. The trouble for them was that the Persians heard it and set a trap. As soon as the Roman soldiers dropped through they were met with burning sulfur and bitumen which has the unfortunate effect of turning to acid in your lungs.

36. Shroud of Turin

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The Shroud of Turin is a linen cloth bearing the image of a man who appears to have suffered physical trauma in a manner consistent with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.  The linen is a full body portrait and measures 14 feet, 3 inches long by 3 feet, 7 inches wide.  The shroud is wrapped in red silk and has been kept in a silver chest in the Chapel of the Holy Shroud in the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist in Turin, Italy since 1578.  The origins of the artifact and its image have been the subject of intense debate among scientists, historians, and researchers.  Believers contend that the shroud is the cloth that was placed on the body of Jesus Christ at the time of his burial, and that the face image is the Holy Face of Jesus.  Detractors contend that the shroud cloth material postdates the crucifixion of Jesus by more than a millennium.  In 1988, radiocarbon dating was done on the shroud in an attempt to determine the relic’s authenticity.  The test indicated that the cloth was woven between 1260 and 1390 A.D, much later than the time of Jesus.

These results have been challenged by peer-reviewed journals and many critics have raised questions about the original nature of the sample used in the test.  The Catholic Church has neither formally endorsed nor rejected the shroud, but in 1958 Pope Pius XII approved the image in association with the Roman Catholic devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus.  On May 28, 1898, amateur Italian photographer Secondo Pia took the first photograph of the shroud and was startled by what he discovered.  The negatives gave the appearance of a positive image, which implies that the shroud itself is a negative of some kind.  Image analysis by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory found that rather than being like a photographic negative, the image unexpectedly has the property of decoding into a 3-D image.  This property could not be replicated by researchers.  One theory is that the image on the shroud is simply painted on.  Both skeptics and proponents tend to have very strong positions on the formation and discovery of the Shroud of Turin.  At times the controversy is pitting science versus divine formation, which makes dialogue very difficult.  The Shroud of Turin remains one of the most mysterious artifacts in the world.

37. Stonehenge

Stonehenge

Stonehenge are prehistoric 5000 year old monument can be located in Salisbury, England. This monument made up of  many small and large stones, larger one have height of 30 feet called sarsens wights up to 25 tons. The actual purpose of this stone monument still unknown.

The ancients of England brings for making Stonehenge monument from Preseli hills, a 150 miles far away location from this monument. It is estimated that 240 dead people got buried in this area, became large Neolithic burial site of Britain.

38. The Hittite Kingdom

450px-Istanbul_-_Museo_archeol._-_Trattato_di_Qadesh_fra_ittiti_ed_egizi_(1269_a.C.)_-_Foto_G._Dall'Orto_28-5-2006Egypto-Hittite Peace Treaty (c. 1258 BC) between Hattusili III and Ramesses II is the best known early written peace treaty. Istanbul Archaeology Museum

At the number 38 position is a discovery which confirms the historical accuracy of several Biblical references. The Hittites are mentioned in the books of Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Joshua, Judges and elsewhere in the Bible. Despite these numerous references, critics contended that the Hittites were a mythical people made up by the Bible writers.

These claims were based on an argument of absence. Since no evidence existed outside the Bible concerning the Hittites, then they must not be real and are nothing more than another part of a fictional tale. The critics were silenced somewhat in the 19th century when Hittite monuments were discovered. These monuments were found at Carchemish which is on the Euphrates River in Syria. This proved the Hittite people were indeed real and had some type of civilization large enough to construct monuments. This, as it turns out, was only the beginning.

In 1906 excavations were underway at Boghazkoy in Turkey. This was eventually found to be Hattusas, the capital city of the Hittite people. The city revealed a great deal concerning the Hittite people and their history. Far from being a mythical people, the Hittites were a dominate power in the region and exercised control over much of Asia Minor and the Near East. The empire at times stretched far enough to establish control over Syria as well as parts of Palestine.

Today, the existence of the Hittites is accepted and there is a great deal known concerning their culture, civilization, leadership, art and commerce. This all stands as evidence the Bible was right all along, that the writer’s of the Bible were indeed accurate historians. Only after extensive external evidence was discovered were the accounts of the Bible accepted.

39. Chichen Itza

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Chichen Itza is a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Post Classic. The archaeological site is located in the municipality of Tinum, in the Mexican state of Yucatán.  It was one of the largest Maya cities and it was likely to have been one of the mythical great cities, or Tollans, referred to in later Mesoamerican literature. The city may have had the most diverse population in the Maya world, a factor that could have contributed to the variety of architectural styles at the site. Chichen Itza is one of the most visited archaeological sites in Mexico; an estimated 1.2 million tourists visit the ruins every year.

40. Royal Library of Ashurbanipal

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The Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, named after Ashurbanipal, the last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, is a collection of thousands of clay tablets and fragments containing texts of all kinds from the 7th century BC. Among its holdings was the famous Epic of Gilgamesh. Due to the sloppy handling of the original material much of the library is irreparably jumbled, making it impossible for scholars to discern and reconstruct many of the original texts, although some have survived intact. The materials were found in the archaeological site of Kouyunjik (ancient Nineveh, capital of Assyria) in northern Mesopotamia. The site is in modern day Iraq.

Old Persian and Armenian traditions indicate that Alexander the Great, upon seeing the great library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh, was inspired to create his own library. Alexander died before he was able to create his library, but his friend and successor Ptolemy oversaw the beginnings of Alexander’s library—a project that was to grow to become the renowned Library of Alexandria.

The library is an archaeological discovery credited to Austen Henry Layard; most tablets were taken to England and can now be found in the British Museum, but a first discovery was made in late 1849 in the so-called South-West Palace, which was the Royal Palace of king Sennacherib (705 – 681 BC).

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Saksaywaman or “Falcon” is a walled complex on the northern outskirts of the city of Cuzco. Like many Inca constructions, the complex is made of large polished dry stone walls, with boulders carefully cut to fit together tightly without mortar.

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The best-known zone of Saksaywaman includes its great plaza and its adjacent three massive terrace walls. The stones used in the construction of these terraces are among the largest used in any building in prehispanic America and display a precision of fitting that is unmatched in the Americas. The stones are so closely spaced that a single piece of paper will not fit between many of the stones. This precision, combined with the rounded corners of the blocks, the variety of their interlocking shapes, and the way the walls lean inward, is thought to have helped the ruins survive devastating earthquakes in Cuzco. The longest of three walls is about 400 meters. They are about 6 meters tall. The estimated volume of stone is over 6,000 cubic meters. Estimates for the weight of the largest Andesite block vary from 128 tons to almost 200 tons!

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Clearly, the people involved in constructing Saksaywaman & Ollantaytambo possessed knowledge and a technology far superior to what is generally imagined. Civilizations do not always move in a forward direction; sometimes it regresses. And indeed, most of the time, both advanced and primitive civilizations are able to exist simultaneously in different parts of the world.

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The Incan culture who constructed these megaliths possessed an advanced civilization. The structures they produced show that they had a wide-ranging knowledge of mathematics and geometry; that they knew the technology needed to build monuments by calculating fixed points in hilly areas; that they used equipment (such as the compass) to determine geographical positions, and that when necessary, they could transport the materials needed for construction from many miles away. Obviously, they could not manage all this by using only primitive tools. Indeed, many experiments by researchers and archaeologists have demonstrated that it would have been impossible to construct these monuments under the conditions proposed by the theory of evolution. Researchers who have attempted to construct similar monuments by reproducing the imaginary “Stone Age” conditions postulated by evolutionists have failed dismally. These researchers have not only found it difficult to construct any similar structure, but have also experienced enormous difficulties in transporting these stones from one place to another. This shows yet again that people of that era did not lead primitive lives, as evolutionists would have us believe. They understood architecture, made expert use of construction technology and engaged in astronomical investigations. On the basis of these megaliths, therefore, it is impracticable to make interpretations about the daily lives of societies of that time. Their social relationships, beliefs, tastes and artistic understanding cannot be deduced with any measure of certainty.

Incan stonemasonry was all done more or less the same way so I’ll use Saksaywaman as an example. The stones were then dragged by rope to the construction site, a feat that required hundreds of men. The ropes were so impressive that they warranted mention by Diego de Trujillo [1571] as he inspected a room filled with building materials. The stones were then shaped into their final form at the building site and then laid in place.

The work, while supervised by Inca architects, was largely carried out by groups of individuals fulfilling their labor obligations to the state. In this system of mita or “turn” labor, each village or group provided a certain number of individuals to participate in public works projects. Although multiple regions might provide labor for a single, large-scale state project, the ethnic composition of the work-gangs remained intact, as different groups were assigned different tasks. Cieza de León who visited Saksaywaman two times in the late 1540s, mentions the quarrying of the stones, their transposition to the site, and the digging of foundation trenches. All this was conducted by rotational labor under the close supervision of Imperial architects.

Protzen, a professor of architecture, has shown how the Inca built long and complex ramps within the stone quarries near Ollantaytambo and how additional ramps were built to drag the blocks to the construction above the village. I personally saw the ramp leading up to the Temple of the Sun at Ollantaytambo. He suggests that similar ramps would have been built at Sacsayhuaman.

In regard to Incan buildings, Ancient Aliens focuses most of its attention on the curved or beveled edges of the stones. They say that it looks like the edges of these stones were melted. Notice as we listen to them build the case for this that the reason they believe this is true, is based entirely on the way the stones look.

Ancient Aliens: “There are signs in many of these stones that show very large amounts of thermal heat have been applied to mould the stones in such a way that they apply perfectly, so it really does raise a lot of questions.”

AA: “If you look at the style the Saxoman Wall was built, the blocks look as if they’ve been molded into putty. If you can mould stone into place then all of a sudden, as crazy as [it] sounds it makes more sense.”

Now melting granite or any other stone and reshaping it would leave unmistakable evidence in and on the stones themselves. In other words, if the rocks were melted, it would be easily provable, it would not be a matter of what the stones look like, it would be a simple yes or no question.

Ancient Aliens skips this step of proving or disproving their theory, instead they assume that the rocks were melted based on the look of the stones and move to the step of trying to figure out who would have had the technology to melt stones.

AA: “I have a stone torch that I use for sometimes shaping stone granite and it generates a temperature in excess of 3,000 degrees. That’s a lot.”

AA: “When we look back at the ancients and we see a technology that they couldn’t possibly know, there’s only two possibilities: either God did it, which we don’t think happened, or some high-tech civilization from another planet came and showed them how to do it, then took their materials and tools and went back home.”

I think there is at least one more possibility that Mr. Dunn may have missed.

Every shaped stone at any Incan site has what archeologists call “pit marks” or “pit scars”. They occur when stone hammers are used to quarry and shape the stone.

In addition archeologist have found a huge amount of Incan stone hammers at the quarries, and almost uniquely to the Incans, they are found at the building sites too, because the Incans only rough cut the stones at the quarries they did the finish work on site so the stones would perfectly fit with the stones around it.

Well how did the Incans accomplish these beveled edges? They used a smaller gauge stone hammer for the outer section. The evidence for this can be seen on every single stone that has these edges.

You can see that the pit scars are much more numerous and smaller on the edges, showing that more blows with a smaller stone was used to achieve the detail work.

Another reason this is no mystery to archeologists is because there are a large number of stones in various stages of construction in the ancient Incan quarries. These stones reveal that indeed the Incan stone masons were using some of the most basic tools, even for their time.

If you want to learn more about the details I will link you to some peer reviewed papers that can tell you more than you’d ever want to know. Including details of experiments done. For example a single scientist in 90 minutes accomplished similar cuts with similar tools. [Jean Pierre Protzen, “Inca Quarrying and Stone Cutting,” The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 44, No. 2 (May, 1985), pp. 161-182]

All this makes what Mike Dunn says here one of the most off the wall things ever said in the Ancient Aliens series:

AA: “I can’t help but think that whoever was behind this thought the process through from beginning to end. They didn’t quarry the rock and then decide how the heck [they] were going to transport [it]. They knew, from beginning to end, what needed to be done with whatever techniques and technology they were going to use. In industry today there is kind of an adage: ‘keep it simple, stupid.’”

AA: “Based on his experience, Mike Dunn believes the simplest way to build the great walls of Machu Pichu would have been to transport small rocks to the site then melt them and use molds to fashion the exact size and shapes needed.”

So he says it’s simpler to melt the rocks – something so complicated that we don’t know how to do it. Is that really the simplest solution he could come up with?

And then to say that they poured the melted rocks into a mold? I mean look at these walls! Can anyone look at this and say “yeah that looks like they were made from the same mold?” These are not exactly bricks of the same size and shape. Unless he wants to say that they made a new mold for every block, in which case we would go well out of the range of this being the simplest solution.

As far as how the Incans moved the stones into place, they left us a lot of evidence behind in the form of ramps. There are Incan ramps all over the place still in existence today, in the quarries and at the building sites.

The Incans had one of the most massive work forces in the all the ancient world. They were like the Roman empire of the west, and they had an absolutely huge labor force at the ready for these types of projects.

So we know these rocks were not melted and put in molds as Ancient Aliens tells us. We actually know exactly how they made these rounded edges, because of the pit marks left behind as well as the huge number of stone hammers found in the quarries. There are no mysteries that require alien input with Incan stone work.

 

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Extraterrestrial connections were first suggested by Eric von Danken and have been perpetuated by the show Ancient Aliens on the History Channel. I do believe that Tiahuanacan engineers seemed to possess advanced knowledge thousands of years ahead of other cultures. But this does mean ancient aliens built Pumapunka. Let’s examine the claims of Ancient Aliens. 

Ancient Aliens: “Pumapunku is so unique in the way it was constructed and shaped and positioned that it is the most intriguing ancient site on the planet.”

AA: “While the pyramids at Giza are an incredible feat of achieved, compared to Pumapunku, the pyramids are child’s play.”

AA: “In my opinion, the most significant piece of evidence that we have in this entire ancient alien astronaut puzzle is Pumapunku in the highland of Bolivia.”

Well, if Pumapunku is considered such good evidence for the Ancient Astronaut theory, we should probably start by looking at it. After all, it’s the one that they say was built directly by extra-terrestrials.

AA: “Pumapunku is the only site on planet Earth that, in my opinion, was built directly by extraterrestrials.”

Ancient Aliens starts off with a false dilemma by making people think that it was absolutely impossible for ancient people to construct Pumapunku, even to the point of making outright false claims.

AA: “One of the most intriguing thing there is it that the stones that were used there weren’t sandstone, they’re granite and diorite. The only stone that is harder than diorite is diamond, so the only way this could have been achieved is if the tools were tipped with diamonds.”

This is funny because it’s totally wrong, the stones are not granite or diorite at Pumapunku, they are Red Sandstone and Andesite, but this is also funny because of the way he says it.

AA: “The stones that were used there weren’t sandstone, they’re granite and diorite.”

Well yeah, actually there is sandstone & andesite. You can’t blame him though for it becomes obvious that throughout the series he often just repeats things he has heard in Eric Von Daniken’s books. Von Daniken’s books are what the Ancient Aliens series is based on. Later we see Eric Von Daniken himself make the exact same, totally wrong claim.

AA: “Of course [Pumapunku was] made out of stones found on Earth, because you don’t transport granite or diorite from another solar system.”

Von Daniken continues building up this false dilemma:

AA: “One of these platforms is 800 tons.”

That is very incorrect, the heaviest block at Pumapunku is 130 tons, and most of the stones are much smaller than that. So he is off by a whopping 670 tons! Unfortunately we will come to expect this kind of thing from Von Daniken as we progress.

Ancient Aliens spends a lot of time pointing out the various features in the stone masonry at Pumapunku before declaring it impossible to do without power tools. 

AA: “Each of these small drills holes are basically evenly spaced along this routed groove. To me it’s clear that power tools have been used on this unusual block of stone here.”

AA: “This surface is as smooth as a table top, like in your kitchen. There’s no wave to it. This was machined.”

The sandstone and andesite stones at Pumapunku would have been easily worked with the most basic stone working tools, the idea that diamond tipped power saws were needed is ridiculous. The red sandstone was relatively soft and easy to work with, and even though andesite is pretty hard, because of the way it cooled it could be easily flaked off using stones as soft as 5.5 on the Mohs scale. Such pounding stones were found all over andesite quarries in the area.

Contrary to Ancient Aliens’ claims that archeologists are baffled by Pumapunku, Archeologists know the basics about how Pumapunku’s stones were cut and shaped. This is partly because there is evidence for this all over the site itself.

They actually used a method that almost all ancient stone workers used. They used hard -pounding stones to pound out troth like depressions; later on they used flat stones and sand to grind the stone to make a polished surface. This is also how the Egyptians, 1000’s of years before this, made their flat surfaced granite monuments like obelisks.

Sand has extremely hard particles in it and, if placed between a flat surface and a rock, can polish even the hardest stones known to man. In fact, the harder the stone is the better it can be polished using sand. We know that’s how sand can turn a piece of copper into a very efficient granite saw or drill- a method the Egyptians utilized well. 

Some stones at Pumapunku that Ancient Aliens would never show the cameras are the ones that were in the middle of this process. They show that at the same time a stone was being pounded by stone hammers, which created these troth like depressions, the grinding and polishing was taking place on the other end of the stone. Unfinished stones clearly show how they were shaped – and it wasn’t with lasers.

There is also unmistakable evidence of stone hammers having been used in the places that were never meant to be visible, like where certain stones would be connected with one another. And because of that, it’s hard for me to believe Eric Von Daniken’s next claim, because it would mean that the alien tool box had a laser gun right next to a stone hammer.

AA: “Extraterrestrials arrive; the spaceship stands in orbit. Only a small spaceship can stand, like a space shuttle. So, to protect their instruments they (the aliens) make, overnight, with their technology, what we call a base camp. Of course [this was] made out of stones found on Earth, because you don’t transport granite or diorite from another solar system. Then they disappeared, but the wall of their base camp is still there.”

It is true that stone tools would not be enough to construct Pumapunku, especially for some of the finer points. For those they would need metal chisels, and the equivalent of a carpenter’s square. Entire studies have detailed how these cuts were made and nothing spectacular is required except some metal tools like chisels. The arguments against this are usually either that a particular culture did not yet know how to cast metals or that copper chisels would have been too weak. 

On the first point, we know that the Pre-Incan Andean culture was very skilled at fashioning metals and creating metal alloys. In fact, the people who built Pumapunku were even pouring copper alloys into molds right on site, showing that they had more than enough capability to form all kinds of metal tools. The question then becomes: what about the tools strength? 

Even if they were pouring pure copper into the mold it would still work, but it would need sharpening often but, because archeologist actually found a few of these metal cramps used by them on site, we now know that they were using a very strong copper arsenic nickel alloy, which made a much stronger final product. Arsenic acts as a de-oxidant preventing the metal from becoming too brittle, and nickel was used in copper alloys specifically to make stronger chisels. Once you understand that they had the ability to make strong metal tools in a huge variety of shapes, there is no part of Pumapunku’s stone work that would have been too difficult for them. 

Notable features at Puma Punku are I-shaped architectural cramps, which are composed of the unique copper-arsenic-nickel bronze alloy. These I-shaped cramps were also used on a section of canal found at the base of the Akapana pyramid at Tiwanaku. These cramps were used to hold the blocks comprising the walls and bottom of stone-line canals that drain sunken courts. In the south canal of the Puma Punku, the I-shaped cramps were cast in place. The unique copper-arsenic-nickel bronze alloy is also found in metal artifacts within the region. Here’s one that our team found still holding one of the stone blocks in place! 

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Well what about these 90-degree right angles that Ancient Aliens’ makes such a fuss about?

AA: “One of the amazing things here at Pumapunku is the precision of the blocks. You can see with this block of granite that it’s really been cut at very accurate 90-degree angles.”

To make flat surfaces with right angles you don’t need alien technology, you only need a square or a simple equivalent. It’s important to keep in mind that Pumapunku would have been built 1000’s of years after the Egyptians, who had all kinds of squares and plumb bobs and levels and so on, it’s a pretty basic stone working tool.

That being said, despite what Ancient Aliens says, Pumapunku is not all perfect right angles. You can even see this, ironically enough, as the Ancient Aliens crew goes around with carpenters squares. You can see some of them simply are not square.

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Also they make claims like all the H blocks are the same dimensions, which they say suggest they were made by a big machine, but not only would that not be the only conclusion if it were true, it’s not even true. The dimensions of the H blocks are not all the same, though they are close. It is probably the case that there were made using the same plans. Another thing that astonished me was their height. I was initially looking for 7-8 ft. H blocks. Anciet Aliens depicts these blocks as huge. It was then I realized that they are only about waist-high! 

 

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Speaking of plans…

AA: “Mainstream archaeologists say that Pumapunku was built by Amara Indians. [However] we would all have to agree that, in order to build something like Pumapunku, you need writing; you need planning, and you also need some sort of idea where which piece goes and how it ultimately all fits together. But there is one thing that mainstream archaeologists agree upon [and that is] that the Amara didn’t have any writing. How is it possible that the Amara built all this without any plans?”

The builders of Pumapunku may not have had an alphabet, but they did use the common iconography or artwork of their culture called Yaya Mama. All the icons on the site are Yaya Mama, not secret alien code, and this is but one of the many indications of the culture and time that it was built.

But my point is that, like many cultures, they used pictures instead of an alphabet and, like most building plans, they used pictures like blueprints. So saying that no alphabet means no planning is, in my opinion, pretty ridiculous.

Well, what about moving the stones and lifting them into place? Surely that would have required levitation…

AA: “How these massive blocks of granite were moved from their quarries and brought here to Pumapunku would have required some kind of super technology. Levitation; anti-gravity, huge lifting vehicles…something that ancient aliens would have had.”

If they did know how to levitate these stones then they put far too much effort in creating places in the stones to attach ropes to. Many stones have grooves several centimeters in width and depth on two adjacent faces for holding ropes. They even had special places cut into the stones that Pumapunku scholars call “hoisting grips”. These are all very strange things to do if they could simply levitate these blocks of stone. 

To make matters worse for the Ancient Astronaut theory, according to archeologist Jean-Pierre Protzen, an expert on Pumapunku, there is almost no stone at the Pumapunku site that does not have what he calls “drag marks” on one of its faces, where it has been…well dragged to the site.

Ancient Aliens throws another false dilemma here:

AA: “What nobody talks about is the irrefutable fact that we are at an altitude of 12,800 feet which means we are above the natural tree line. No trees ever grew in that area, meaning that no trees were cut down in order to use wooden rollers. The wooden roller theory falls by the wayside.”

This is like saying that there is no way that the Egyptians used wood because trees didn’t grow in Egypt. The difference is that while the Egyptians had to import wood from places like Lebanon, it would have been far easier for those at Pumapunku to solve this problem for all they would have had to do is walk down the hill a little bit.

Ok well what about this claim:

AA: “Logic does not exist at Pumapunku because there we have megalithic structures which just lie around this entire site as if ripped apart by some great force.”

I propose that logic still exists at Pumapunku, and that the scattered state of the complex can be easily explained. To quote from archeologist Alexi Vranich: “the high quality of the stones made it attractive building material for houses, churches, plazas, bridges, even railways.”

In other words, the stones were pulled down and hauled off by locals for building material. In fact, we even have the 400 year old writings of a visitor to Pumapunku who said that the looting was in full swing even back then. He wrote that if the site was closer to town, he didn’t think there would have been any stones left at all.

Ancient Aliens says that Pumapunku is 17,000 years old!

This is what Vranich said of this claim:

“The idea that Tiwanaku is 14,000 years old is based on a rather faulty study done in 1926. Since then, there has been a huge quantity of work both on the archaeology and geology of the area, and all data indicates that Tiwanaku existed from around A.D. 300-500.”

For more information on the faulty study he is referring to here I will quote at length from Jason Colavito, who has been debunking ancient astronaut theories for years in his books and blogs. He said the following about this claim.

“Tiwanaku is not 17,000 years old. This date derives from the work of Arthur Posnansky, who tried to apply archaeoastronomy to the site but did so in ways that modern scholars do not recognize as legitimate. Posnansky proposed a date of 15,000 B.P. (before present, i.e. 13,000 BCE), which the geniuses on Ancient Aliens misread as 15,000 BCE, adding an extra 2,000 years to Posnansky’s already flawed dates.

Here’s what he did wrong. Posnansky assumed that the Kalasasaya temple at Tiwanaku was laid out with perfect accuracy to align to the equinoxes and solstices that he felt (but could not prove) were important to the Tiwanaku people.

Thus, on a certain day the sun was supposed to rise above one rock at the temple and set behind another – ah, but which rock should we choose? Since the current ruins do not align with these celestial events accurately, he concluded that the ruins must have been built at a time when they would have aligned with that event.

Since the sun and sky change positions at a predictable rate due to gradual changes in the angle of the earth’s axis, he concluded that Kalasasaya was built in 13,000 BCE as a solar observatory, despite no other evidence of solar astronomy at the site.

The long and short of it is that Posnansky assumed celestial alignments and assumed flawless construction and then used his assumptions to “prove” that his assumptions were correct.

Colavito also has this picture of the site with the caption: “Pick a rock, any rock. One of them must align with something”.

This site has been dated using a huge variety of methods. Things like carbon dating; the type of metals they used, the debris found in certain places, the type of iconography they used. Literally every kind of dating method applied comes to the same conclusion: It was constructed in the early middle ages.

Before I conclude this entry on Pumapunku there are two other claims I wanted to address:

AA: “The Spanish asked the Inca, the people living there, including the king of the Inca ‘What is this Pumapunku?’ and they all said ‘It’s not us. It’s not our forefathers that made this. This was made by the gods in one, single night.’ Usually a king is proud of what his people did, about the precision. [However] in this case the chief of the people said ‘No. It was not us. It was the gods who made it’.

If you understand a little about the Incan imperial system and religion, you will understand why the Incans didn’t claim the site and why they claimed that it had a supernatural origin.

Part of the Incan state religion was that the Incan empire was the first civilization and was created by God himself. It was a very convenient idea for bolstering the Incan case for the right to rule everyone else.

When the Incans arrived at Pumapunku the site had already been abandoned for at least 100 years. Admitting that there was a pre-Incan culture at all, let alone one with more skill than them, would have been detrimental to the whole scheme.

So they slightly modified their already existing mythology to include Pumapunku. So, instead of Virachoca creating the Incan capital, he also created Pumapunku. Just like that the Incans were still the oldest and greatest civilization, even though everyone probably knew it wasn’t true.

Finally, Ancient Aliens says the following about what the ancient local people believed regarding who constructed Pumapunku:

AA: “Local legend suggests that Tianaka was built as a site of religious pilgrimage to celebrate the arrival of sky gods.”

This is a total lie. According to their legend, Viracocha came from the sea- not the sky! This is a very sneaky move by Ancient Aliens in my opinion.

In conclusion, the stones are not made of Granite and Diorite. It is Andesite; an extrusive igneous rock named after the Andes mountains where it is very abundant. The stones were workable with the tools available to the Andean culture- tools which were know included high-quality metal-alloyed chisels. 

These tools would have been more than sufficient to make the angles seen at Pumapunku. The faces of the rocks have been finished using a polishing technique after being rough cut using stone hammers – evidenced by the unfinished stones and hidden areas of the finished stones.

The moving of the stones was not as difficult as Ancient Aliens makes it seem, especially when you take into account they are telling people that the stones weigh 600 tons more than they actually do. The stones have tell-tale drag marks and hoisting holes for ropes, all showing that they were not levitated as Ancient Aliens would have us believe.

We know the culture which built this monument, and all the iconography and sculptures are consistent with that culture. The various methods of dating that scientist use all point to the same time period. The idea that Pumapunku was from Atlantean times we now know is based on a very transparently flawed presupposition which, with modern equipment, can be easily demonstrated to be false. And I know personally from visiting this site. 

Dr. Aaron Judkins

City of the Dead- Chongos, Peru

Posted: January 13, 2014 in Archaeology

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We headed out to Chongos, the City of the Dead recently and were accompanied by the Mayor of Pisco who gave us a police escort to the site!  Chongos is a very barren place!  It is a waste-land that stretches for 17 miles and it houses the buried dead of the mysterious and enigmatic Paracas & the Chinca peoples.  Chongos is littered with human remains from the Juacarro’s—grave robbers. They have been plundering the tombs that lie here for the last hundreds of years! It is very sad! Behind me is a pyramid in ruins. The mayor told me the last excavation done here was by an American Archaeologist in 1901!

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LA Marzulli was looking over an area that had been plundered and discovered a Paracas skull with only one parietal plate and no saggital suture!   Here is a bowl that was laying in one of the open graves.  And the search continues!

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On Assignment in Peru!

Posted: January 12, 2014 in Archaeology

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I’m in Peru with LA Marzulli, Chase (UFO investigator) and Joe Taylor.  We all met up in Lima recently & toured this site of a reconstructed ancient pyramid.

The tour guide, who is state sponsored, told us that the pyramid was erected to the fish god.  He then revealed that human sacrifice was done at the site every 15 to 20 years.

Ritualistic Human sacrifice The construction of this pyramid is similar to a ziggurat- one in which like Nimrod constructed in Babel, seem to act as gateway to the gods. (The false ones!)

We see this in Chitzen Itza, Mexico and read about it in our Bibles with Baal worship as the Israelites sacrifice their children to Molech on the high places!

HeadWe also toured the newly constructed Paracas exhibit at the Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology in Lima & received unprecedented access!  We saw evidence of cradle head-boarding but also saw one skull which had only one parietal plate.  The skull to your left is one that was cradle boarded.

Brien Foerster asked one of the officials there, where did the Paracas people come from.  The man was taken off guard and gesturing with his finger, pointed toward the sky!

We are on the trail & filming Watchers 8 in Peru!

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Peru 2014

Posted: November 27, 2013 in Archaeology
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Paracas Skull DNA

I am  headed to Peru in January with LA Marzulli on the Trail of the Nephilim.  I will be one of two American archaeologist as well as one Peruvian archaeologist.  Joe Taylor will also be with us who will do more castings, of the elongated skulls there along with Ron Moorehead will also accompany us.

I could use some prayer support, but there’s another matter which I want to bring up and it is this.  If any of you have some extra dollars and want to “sow” into Man vs Archaeology, now might be a good time to do so.

If you feel compelled to do so, you will get The Los Lunas Mystery Stone DVD, as well as my book, “Alien Agenda: the Return of the Nephilim” which will total a $40.00 value, if you donate $100.00 or more.

We are going to collect DNA samples from various sites and this is what part of your donations will go to.  We’re attempting to find out if these elongated skulls are the remains of a hybrid being, known as the Nephilim. The testing of the samples will reach about $7000.00 per sample!  There are many expenses on this trip, as I have to pay for my hotel & daily expenses such meals.

My airfare is paid so I’m going no matter what.  We will be gone for about three weeks.

If your interested in helping out please go to the donation button at www.AARONJUDKINS.com.   I’m not a 501c3, so your donations will not be tax deductible.

Thank you for investing into this work!

Maverick

Thank you to those who have donated! You make a difference! 

1. Sally Cline

2. Tye Towriss

3. Audrey Robinson – Canada

4. E.E. “Bud” Dallmann

 

13 Skulls in Mexico

Posted: November 23, 2013 in Archaeology
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Click the Pic to read the article!

Nephilim-Skull-Mexico

                     

My Radio Interview on the Fringe Radio Network

My radio interview on the Fringe Radio Network.

Link  —  Posted: November 16, 2013 in Uncategorized
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The 7 Most Terrifying Archaeological Discoveries

Link  —  Posted: October 31, 2013 in Archaeology
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A.S. Judkins:

New interpretations of ancient texts suggest that Satan may have been an extraterrestrial who was more of an ally to humanity than an enemy.

Originally posted on L.A. Marzulli's Blog:

Ancinet ALeinsjpegCommentary & Analysis

by

L. A. Marzulli

New interpretations of ancient texts suggest that Satan may have been an extraterrestrial who was more of an ally to humanity than an enemy.

http://www.history.com/shows/ancient-aliens/videos

Who or what is Satan?  Is he, a demon, the devil, the personification of evil, or was he in fact, a benevolent extraterrestrial being?  One who stole technology from alien beings in an effort to lead early man out of darkness and ignorance. 

Perhaps he is testing us using alien technology to modify human behavior in ways we have yet to understand.  

In a sense, Satan’s not such a bad guy.  You can’t have light without the dark.  You can’t have right without wrong.  And we have to learn these things for ourselves, and ultimately, through choice wrong and right, we grow and we become who we are and ultimately to be like our makers, to be gods…

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