There is a code in the TORAH, the first five books of the Old Testament. The Code is real and mathematically provable. Incredibly, the Code seems to have information about what is happening today. Names, places and events are all encoded. The TORAH is not a crystal ball but new clues seem to indicate that it was meant for our generation to discover its secrets.

Since the first introduction of computers in the 70s, a select group of rabbis and professors have been working to crack the Code. You’ll meet them and see what they’ve discovered. The Torah seems to be encoded with major world events including anything that is important to Israel. The Hamas wars — rockets and terrorist attacks. Major events. The Economy, the Twin Towers, the BP Oil disaster, Terror Attacks, 2012 — all have been encoded. Director Richard Shaw interviews the world experts on the Codes, as well as explorers like L.A. Marzulli, IDF Reserve Captain / Writer – Dan Gordon, Col. Richard Kemp CBE, and many others that know the truth of what is happening in Israel. You’ll walk on the Gaza border, see actual Hamas missiles used to kill school children. An incredible look at an ancient mystery that seems to have been locked away until our generation. But why is it being revealed now?

You’re already familiar with the award-winning work that Richard Shaw does in the WATCHERS series. In Torah Codes, End to Darkness, Richard takes you through the real issues Israel faces while working with the world experts in the Codes. They show their most important Tables on those topics — mirroring what is happening today in Israel and the most recent Codes. Also, this is the first film to prove that only the Torah can deliver results unlike any other set of texts. The film shows actual computer searches and probability results between other Hebrew “monkey” texts and the Torah. The renown Professor Eliyahu Rips tells us how he nearly ended his life to protest the Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia, and how he went from a prisoner of the KGB to a world-class professor of mathematics in Israel. How trained as an atheist, he later became interested in the miracles he read about in the Torah and had to somehow prove it scientifically. Hence, the work he started and built a team to discover, suddenly was opening up secrets locked away for thousands of years, and that there really was “a creator of the world.” And, not unlike something you might see in the WATCHERS series, Richard takes us to ancient Hebrew expert Nir Studnitsky, whose research seems to suggest that in the un-edited Hebrew text in the Torah, it refers to the giants, and “cities in the sky.”

In the two-disc set, the Special Features section includes a collection of the 41 Torah Code tables seen in the film that you can study and click through at your leisure. Don’t miss this opportunity to see how Israel continues to be the recipient of terrorist attacks that continue to fail by some unseen force, while the Torah Codes seem to document all the details before they happen.

Torah Codes, End to Darkness. Available mid January. Order now!

Post from www.lamarzulli.net

Acceleration Radio!

Posted: January 29, 2015 in Uncategorized

Originally posted on L.A. Marzulli's Blog:

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TRY OUT OUR NEW IPHONE APP FOR THE SHOW 

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Acceleration Radio

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Brand New Audio Streams

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Politics Prophecy & the Supernatural Politics Prophecy & the Supernatural

POLITICS, PROPHECY & THE SUPERNATURAL!

Tonights Topics: Do your homework!

1.  Holocaust Remembrance day – The Rise of Antisemitism: From the BLOG.

2.  The Collapse of the Petro-Dollar:

From the BLOG.

3.  Volcano UPDATE: https://theextinctionprotocol.wordpress.com

4.  Distraction of the week – Deflated Footballs – Really?  Super Bowl with Katy Perry? Occult Spectacle or entertainment?

 5. UFO Update: http://ufosightingshotspot.blogspot.com

6. The Coming Psalm 83 war: http://www.jpost.com/Arab-Israeli-Conflict/Tensions-in-the-North-Not-war-yet-389347

Got a question? I’ll try to answer it on the show!  Email me at:…

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The Star of Bethlehem

Posted: December 4, 2014 in Uncategorized

It may or may not come as a surprise to some that Messiah Yeshua (Jesus Christ) may not have been born on December 25th.  So if Jesus was not born on December 25th, then why do Christians celebrate that day?
It was in the 3rd century when the Roman Emperor Aurelan proclaimed the winter solstice, December 25th, as a feast day dedicated to the Roman sun god, Sol. With the advent of the winter solstice, each day thereafter becomes increasingly longer. Aurelian decreed that followers of Christ would be “allowed” to celebrate on December 25th because it was convenient to share the Lords birthday with the Roman celebration of their sun god. So this date was determined by the Romans, not the Bible.  In fact, the Bible gives no exact date as to when the Lord was born. But it does leave us some incredible clues. The truth is that there is a whole lot about the birth of Jesus that you may not have been taught in church.
Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, saying, “Where is he that is born King of the Jews?” for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him…and, lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was.

(Matthew 2:1,2,9)
The Creator uses celestial bodies for signs, times, & seasons.
“God made the stars…for signs and times and seasons”. (Genesis 1:14-16).
There have been many “signs” that God has given us throughout history, but one particular sign would be the most relevant in all of history, when God Himself became man, incarnate in human flesh, was born for the redemption of mankind.
Before I begin, I want to make something very clear. The Scripture condemns the principles of astrology and Matthew was not endorsing such practices. The Magi were astronomers (scientific observation of the heavens) who had been influenced by Daniel and other Old Testament prophets. The Gospel message is clearly seen in the Zodiac, beginning with the constellation of Virgo, the virgin, and ending with Leo, the King. This message was later perverted in Babylon into the reading of horoscopes to predict future events, which God strictly condemns as demonic, occult practice.
Now let’s look at the possible theories:
The DEATH of HEROD
Most of the early church fathers placed Christ’s birth from 3 B.C. to 1 B.C. However, since the nineteenth century the majority of theologians have placed the birth of Jesus before the Spring of 4 B.C. This placement was due to a reference in Josephus that King Herod died shortly after an eclipse of the moon and before a Springtime Passover of the Jews. Astronomers in the last century identified an eclipse of the moon, which could be seen at that time, occurred on the evening of March 13, 4 B.C.
Herod’s death was arbitrarily placed within the 29 days from that eclipse until the Passover. Thus, theologians have looked for celestial displays as candidates for the Star before that date. Ernest Martin disagrees & builds a convincing argument showing that the proper eclipse occurred on January 10, 1 B.C.
CENSUS of CYRENIUS:
Ernest Martin argues that Cyrenius received special Roman commands throughout his career, especially in census-taking events, and acted as procurator. This special census was one of the most important in history.
This census (or registration) in 3/2 B.C. was actually an oath of allegiance demanded by Augustus Caesar and proclaimed during the summer of 3 B.C. Since both Joseph and Mary were descendants of David, and could both be considered legitimate claimants of the throne of Israel, both could be required to make the trip to Bethlehem. On February 5, 2 B.C., Augustus was given the title Pater Patriae (Father of the Country) by decree of the Senate and the people of Rome. The festivities coincided with his 25th jubilee year of being emperor of Rome and the 750th year of the founding of Rome.
ATTENTION in the HEAVENS
Astronomer Johann Kepler in 1605 suggested that a conjunction of Saturn, Jupiter and Mars was the Star of Bethlehem. To Persian Magi, Saturn represented Jerusalem and Jupiter represented royalty. Pisces and Virgo both represented the Hebrews.
On May 29, 7 B.C. a conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter occurred in Pisces. On October 3, 7 B.C. the same thing happened.
This normally occurs once in 804 years. In the spring of 6 B.C. they conjuncted again with Mars joining! This is the only historical occasion when a planetary “massing” has occurred at the same time as a “triple” conjunction. Certainly a celestial message was being sent!
Also, supernovas have been suggested as candidates for the Star. Visible supernovas have been reported in A.D. 1054 (the Chinese star), A.D. 1572 (Tycho’s star), and A.D. 1604 (Kepler’s star). On a date corresponding to July 5 B.C., the Chinese astronomical records report a “guest star”, a nova in the constellation Aquilla.
An excavated Roman garden wall, dating to the time of Augustus Caesar, shows a painting of a tree with fruit clustered in the configuration of the star constellations. An “extra” fruit is shown where this “nova” occurred. It is of interest to note that this “nova” (X-1 Cygnus) appeared in the Northern Cross, with star Deneb (meaning “The Lord Comes”) at the head of the cross. Stars Altair (“The Wounding”) and Vega (“He Shall be Exalted”) are nearby. Our entire Solar System is moving toward star Vega. A celestial announcement anticipating the birth of a King is again being displayed!

MAGI’S  OBSERVATION
On August 12, 3 B.C. Jupiter and Venus united as a “morning star”, then displayed an “evening star” reunion 10 months later… On September 14, 3 B.C. Jupiter (the royal planet star) came into union with Regulus (the royal fixed star of the first magnitude) in the constellation of Leo, the Lion. Regulus is situated between the feet of Leo (the Royal constellation). After this first conjunction Jupiter continued on its normal course in the heavens. Then, on December 1, 3 B.C., the planet stopped its motion through the fixed stars and began its annual retrogression. As it did so, it once again headed toward the star Regulus. On February 17, 2 B.C. the two were reunited. Jupiter continued this backward, retrogressive motion another 40 days and then reverted to its normal motion through the stars. This movement placed the planet once again into a third conjunction with Regulus on May 8, 2 B.C. To the observer, it would appear that Jupiter was making a circling “crown” effect over and around Regulus. With each of these apparent changes in direction, the Planet briefly becomes “stationary” within the background of the fixed stars. On December 25th, 2 B.C. Jupiter came to a normal stationary position DIRECTLY OVER BETHLEHEM, as viewed from Jerusalem! At precisely this time the planet “stopped” in the middle of the constellation Virgo, the Virgin. The Sun was also “standing still” in its usual Winter Solstice.

ROMAN INTERPRETATION
To the secular world devoid of spiritual conscience, particularly to those in Rome, it seemed like heaven itself was giving approval for the emperorship of Augustus and that Roman government had the divine right to world sovereignty. This was in spite of the fact that they were aware of the prophecies made by Daniel. Suetonius and Tacitus confirmed that Rome knew of the belief that the empire of the world would be given to someone from Judea.
JEWISH INTERPRETATION
Martin aptly notes that the spectacular astronomical signs from May, 3 B.C. to December 2 B.C. would have caused wonderful interpretations, by astrologers, on behalf of Augustus and the Roman Empire, but the Magi decided instead to go to Jerusalem with gifts to a newborn Jewish king. On August 12, 3 B.C., Jupiter rose as a morning star, which soon came into conjunction with Venus. That started Jupiter off on a journey in which six conjunctions with other planets and the star Regulus took place. The final planetary union was the massing of the planets, which occurred with Mars, Venus, and Mercury on August 27, 2 B.C., Jupiter then became “stationary” for a brief time over Bethlehem on December 25, 2 B.C. At the inception of this scenario, here was Jupiter (the King Planet), which had just united with Venus (the Mother), now joining itself with the King star Regulus (the star of the Jewish Messiah) in Leo (the constellation of Judah), while the Sun (the Supreme Father of Ruler) was then located in Virgo (the Virgin).
CHRONOLOGY
1) Joseph and Mary began their journey to Bethlehem for the “census” at the close of the Jewish civil year in 3 B.C.
2) Near this time on August 12, 3 B.C. Jupiter and Venus united as a “morning star”, then Jupiter continued its phenomenal progression through the starry heavens.
3) In 3 B.C. Jupiter, the planet representing King David, was in conjunction with Regulus, the star of kingship, in the constellation Leo the lion, considered to represent the tribe of Judah. This conjunction in the lion would have served as a sign of the birth of a leader. Jesus was born in a stable on the twilight period of September 11, 3 B.C., the Day of Trumpets.
The arrival of a king is usually announced with trumpets.  It is amazing how exactly in detail God fulfills His Word! What an awesome God we serve! Truly “The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands. Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they display knowledge.” (Ps 19:1-2)
4) On September 14, 3 B.C. Jupiter came into union with Regulus and began the circling “crown” effect, which took place during the early months of Jesus’ infancy.
5) Fifteen months later, when Jesus was a “young child” in a house the Magi arrived on December 25, 2 B.C., when the King planet Jupiter came to its stationary point in mid-Virgo, the Virgin. The star would have been seen as “stopped” over Bethlehem, as viewed from Jerusalem.
One conclusion that can be drawn is that that star in the east, which that Magi saw was this progression of Jupiter through the heavens. Thus, the star was not “standing” over the manger at the time of Jesus’ birth (even though it was already in its divinely-appointed historic progression), but instead, at the appropriate time “stood” over Bethlehem at the time the Magi arrived to visit in the house.

As always, check out Man vs Archaeology’s website: www.AARONJUDKINS.com for the latest.

ENDNOTES:
1. Earnest L. Martin, The Star that Astonished the World, 121

2. Josephs, Antiquities XVII. 218

3. D. Ronald Allen, The Stars of His Coming, 15

4. Robert Faid, A Scientific Approach to Biblical Mysteries, 62, 63

10 Strange & Bizarre Archaeological Discoveries

#10. The Bog People

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In Northern Europe peat farmers discovered something terrifying. Accidentally unearthed in the bog were unusual preserved bodies that were remarkably well preserved.

The pictures are, unfortunately, exactly what they look like: murdered bodies offered up as part of some freaky bog people ritual. One corpse in particular, the “Grauballe Man,” tells the story pretty clearly: He was put to death the winter after a bad harvest, there’s evidence of stubble on his jaw (indicating he had been detained and not allowed to shave in the days before he was put to death) and his burial pit was right in the middle of a consecrated area.

#9. Pompeii

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Pompeii, the ancient Roman city, was buried during a volcanic eruption in 79 AD when Mount Vesuvius exploded. It was lost for nearly 1700 years and the damage done to the city was so severe that even the name of the city vanished from memory. In 1738 Herculaneum – a nearby city also lost – was discovered and then ten years later military engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre discovered Pompeii. Whilst digging in later excavations, Giuseppe Fiorelli discovered that some of the large bubbles in the volcanic mud were perfectly formed molds of the men who had died there. He injected plaster into the bubbles and gave the modern world the first look at real Ancient Roman people. Interestingly the city was full of erotic art and objects (many of which were hidden until 2000 AD) and graffiti found on a wall in Pompeii called the city “Sodom and Gomorrah” leading many Christians to believe that the city was destroyed by God in retribution for its sexual perversities.

#8. Teotihuacan Sacrifice

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In 2004, a grisly discovery was made outside of modern day Mexico City. Although it has been known for years that the Aztecs performed bloody sacrificial festivals, numerous decapitated and mutilated bodies of both humans and animals shed some light on just how horrific the rituals could get.

#7. Mount Owen Moa

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In 1986, an expedition was exploring the cave system of Mount Owen in New Zealand when it came across the huge claw you’re now looking at. It was so well preserved that it almost seemed like whatever it belonged to had just died recently. Upon excavation and inspection, however, it was determined to belong to an Upland Moa, a large prehistoric bird that apparently came with a nasty set of claws.

#6. The Mass Grave of the Headless Vikings

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Archaeologists were digging up the side of a boring old roadway in Dorset when they unearthed  a mass grave containing the headless remains of 54 Viking warriors. Researchers began to notice something unusual about the placement of the bones. The leg and arm bones, heads and torsos were all neatly arranged into their own separate piles. So what happened? The Vikings may have been sacrificed in a ritualistic manner not consistent with the surrounding culture of the time.

#5. Ancient Chemical Warfare

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In 1933, archaeologist Robert du Mesnil du Buisson was conducting a dig in the area of Dura-Europos, where ancient Persians laid siege to their longtime enemies, the Romans. During the excavation, du Mesnil found several tunnels, which is pretty much par for the course in a siege situation. A little out of the ordinary, however, was the haphazard pile of 19 Roman soldiers he found in one of those tunnels, all looking as though they died while fleeing something. So what was at other end of the tunnel that could terrify and ultimately murder 19 Roman soldiers so quickly?

A single Persian soldier, found clutching desperately at his armor, forever preserved in that panicked moment. Add to the strangeness the fact that there were traces of sulfur and bitumen all along the walls, and the implication is clear: one terrified Persian who died clawing frantically at his own body, 19 Romans who died fleeing from his direction, sulfurous emanations in the walls? This indicates that the deaths were actually due to one of the earliest attempts at chemical warfare.

The story may have happened like this:

“The Romans heard the Persians working beneath the ground and steered their tunnel to intercept their enemies. The Roman tunnel was shallower than the Persian one, so the Romans planned to break in on the Persians from above. But there was no element of surprise for either side: The Persians could also hear the Romans coming.

“So the Persians set a trap. Just as the Romans broke, through, James said, they lit a fire in their own tunnel. Perhaps they had a bellows to direct the smoke, or perhaps they relied on the natural chimney effect of the shaft between the two tunnels. Either way, they threw sulfur and bitumen on the flames. One of the Persian soldiers was overcome and died, a victim of his own side’s weapon. The Romans met with the choking gas, which turned to sulfuric acid in their lungs.”

#4. The Screaming Mummies

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In 1886, Gaston Maspero, then head of the Egyptian Antiquities Service, was cataloging mummies when he came across an unusually plain burial box. Unlike the kings and queens he’d been working with for most of his career, this particular box didn’t give any information as to the identity of the individual inside. Even stranger, the body was wrapped in sheepskin, which was considered unclean by ancient Egyptians. And then, as he slowly unwrapped the mummy & gazed upon the face — as if in a horror movie– he found this screaming, mummy face looking back at him!

When he finally uncovered it, Gaston also found that the corpse’s hands and feet had been bound for some unspeakable reason.  Because of the strange coverings and the bound hands & feet with a seemingly tortured expression, experts theorized that the body (creatively named Unknown Man E) had been poisoned, buried alive or otherwise tortured before his untimely death.

#3. The Tomb of the Sunken Skulls

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In 2009, archaeologists were excavating the bottom of a prehistoric dry lake bed in Motala, Sweden, when they stumbled upon the foundations of a mysterious stone structure sealed at the bottom of an ancient lake. They eventually unearthed the exact kind of stuff one expects from primitive mystery structures: animal bones, stone tools and, oh yeah — the 8,000-year-old skulls of 10 people, ranging in age from small children to the elderly. And then they found an 11th skull buried deep within the ancient mud of the lake bottom. Fragments of one of the other skulls were deliberately lodged inside the cranium of the 11th skull.

For reasons that are unclear to us, some ancient society probably butchered 11 people in a stone hut and then put the pieces of one dead person’s skull inside the brain space of another person.

But the horror doesn’t end there: Not only had somebody perhaps bashed one person’s skull in with another person’s skull, but, before being interred inside the tomb, several of the bodies had stakes driven through them and were then set on fire. Two of the skulls were found with the stakes still embedded.

#2. Vampire? 

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Bulgaria archaeologists may have ‘stumbled’ upon new evidence of vampires. The evidence for this is that there was a burial of a man with an iron stake through his chest and trauma indicative of stab wounds to the heart. Since the burial dates to the 15th century, they argue that it was likely meant to prevent the individual from rising as a vampire. This brings the total number of potential vampires found in Bulgaria from this period to 100 cases. The current pattern shows that they are all men, likely wealthier individuals who would be suspected of evil in life, and were found with injuries indicative of being stabbed after death or were pinned down by metal stakes.

This isn’t the first time that an archaeologist has cried ‘vampire’, although it does represent one of the larger cases. A female skeleton recovered from Venice dating to the 16th century was found with a brick in her mouth. She was part of a larger mass grave that contained the bodies of plague victims. Stories of the time period talk of these mass burials being reopened and finding individuals within who looked fresh and were vampires. It is possible that her lack of decomposition of the body and breakdown of the shroud was thought to be a sign of vampirism and the brick in the mouth was a method to prevent her feeding on the living or deceased.

Reference: Archaeology 2012 Archaeologists Stumble Upon ‘Vampire’ Skeleton in Bulgaria. Novinite. http://www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=139940

#1. An Italian Witch or a Vampire?

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There’s another strange burial from a Medieval cemetery at Piombino in Tuscany, Italy. Two female bodies in particular interested the excavators.  One was found buried with 17 dice and since women were not allowed to play dice games at the time, they interpreted her as a having been a prostitute.

The second body was far more interesting … Seven nails were placed in her mouth. Presumably this was an attempt to stop the women rising and returning from the dead. Yet in addition, in this Italian burial, the woman’s clothes were nailed to the ground by 13 nails, to further ‘hold’ her down.

Because of these highly unusual nails, the woman was identified initially as a witch. She died around AD 1300, aged 25 to 30, and was buried in the church yard amongst other citizens of Piombino who had been buried normally. Most of the other burials had a shroud and / or a simple coffin, but the ‘prostitute’ and the ‘witch’ had neither. The excavator, Prof Alfonso Forgione, of L’Aquila University, said he had never seen anything similar, and felt that the pinning down by nails was an attempt to stop her from ‘rising’ from the dead by those who buried her and who believed she had some sort of magical powers, making her a witch.

The fact that the two women were buried in the church graveyard, in consecrated ground, has been an issue, and led some to question whether a witch would be buried in this way. The Irish ‘zombies’ were certainly buried in a consecrated graveyard, as were many of the Bohemian and Moravian ‘vampires’ so I’m not sure why this should be an issue. It has however led at least one archaeologist to revise his opinion of the ‘witch’ burial and re-label her an ‘adulteress’  … seven nails through the jaw and another 13 pinning her clothes down seem to be to be over-kill for an adulteress, but then again it was a pretty serious sin in the Medieval period. Or maybe she was a vampire after all…

If you want more info, then I recommend UNC anthropologist Krista Killgrove’s blog post on the burials (here), since she links to all the Italian coverage.

  www.AARONJUDKINS.com 

 

Thank you for your vote!

 

America BC?
We all know the story of Christopher Columbus who set sail in 1492 & discovered America. That’s what we’ve all been told. But have we got our history wrong?  Was Columbus the first to discover the Americas? We know that the Vikings were here some 500 yrs before. But were they the only ones?

10. The Ancient Egyptians

Ancient+Egyptian+ArmourIn the early ’90s, scientists discovered trace amounts of nicotine and cocaine in several Egyptian mummies, including pharaoh Ramesses II. These were only native to the New World. But how could this be? The pyramids and mummies of the Egyptians and Meso-Americans are separated by thousands of years, and while Egyptian pyramids were mainly used as tombs, Meso-American pyramids were primarily places of worship. This could be explained by contamination, but it could also mean that the Egyptians got around more than we realized. After all, the similarities between Egyptian and Meso-American culture have long been noted.

However, despite these links, there’s been little to no archaeological evidence connecting the Egyptians and Meso-Americans.  However, in 1914, a few Egyptian statuettes were uncovered among Mayan ruins, but since they were not accurately documented, it’s difficult to confirm their authenticity.

9. Siberians0

Where did Native Americans come from? New evidence suggests East Asia, specifically Siberia.  http://www.news-journal.com/news/nation/siberian-boy-s-ancient-dna-holds-surprises/article_3910729b-70bb-5aa7-80f9-0fdea34c26f1.html

It is thought they the Siberians may have migrated to northern North America around 11,000 years ago. It’s widely believed that the Siberians traveled to America across the frozen Bering Strait during an ice age, but they also may have crossed the Bering Strait by boat.

Though this remains a mystery, this theory has been supported by genetic testing. In 2012, a team of anthropologists from the University of Pennsylvania released a study that showed a unique shared mutation between the southern Altai people of Siberia and Native Americans. It seems credible that the Siberians were in the Americas long before Columbus ever was born.

8. Malians

Mansa_MusaThe ancient empire of Mali was a West African superpower in the late Middle Ages. Mali was very wealthy, and its leader, Mansa Musa, was the richest man during that time. So mighty was his economic power that when he visited Egypt in 1324, it is said that he crashed the Egyptian gold market!

Musa told the story of his predecessor, Mansa Abubakari II who supposedly commissioned a voyage to the end of the Atlantic Ocean. He sent a fleet of 200 ships across the Atlantic  but after a lengthy waiting period, only one returned. Its sailors told Abubakari about a giant whirlpool that had swallowed the other ships. Abubakari was intrigued led a monstrous fleet of 2,000 ships to again set sail.

The fleet never returned, and some speculated that he landed in Brazil in 1312. When Columbus arrived over 100 years later, he allegedly encountered African traders and spears tipped in African gold. The giant stone carvings of heads found in southern Mexico, called the Olmec Heads, have also been cited as evidence of Africans in pre-Columbian America displaying African facial features. The Olmec are regarded as one of the first civilizations in Mexico, preceding other Meso-American empires.

7. The Knights Templar

Knights-Templar-17The Knights Templar were dissolved in the 14th century on charges of heresy, though many historians believe the real reason for the persecution was jealousy. Thanks to their banking system, the order of warrior monks was remarkably well off. Of course, being burned at the stake does tend to put a damper on business.

During the fight against persecution, some knights supposedly escaped to Scotland, where they received help from Henry Sinclair, Prince of Orkney Islands. In 1393, Sinclair had carried out a survey of Greenland through a Venetian admiral. Now, in 1398, he was ready to lead an expedition to the New World by following old Viking routes. Twelve ships carried Sinclair and hundreds of Templar refugees to Nova Scotia, Canada, where the knights allegedly hid their treasure. Sinclair is then said to have explored as far south as present-day Massachusetts.

Sinclair and the refugees may have assimilated with the natives instead of returning to Scotland. One outlandish claim is that the alleged gnostic beliefs of the Templar had a massive influence on Native American religion, while another states that the founding fathers were influenced by Templar teachings. The cited evidence includes a portrait of a medieval knight on a stone in Westford, Massachusetts and an old tower in Newport, Rhode Island that looks fairly European. The remains of an old castle, a cannon, and a stone wall in Nova Scotia are supposedly further evidence of the theory.

6. Romans 

index_romans_largeThe Tucson artifacts, sometimes called the Tucson Lead Crosses, Tucson Crosses, Silverbell Road artifacts, or Silverbell artifacts, are thirty-one lead objects that Charles E. Manier and his family found in 1924 near Picture Rocks, Arizona.  These objects consisted of crosses, swords, and religious/ceremonial paraphernalia, most of which contained Hebrew or Latin engraved inscriptions, pictures of temples, leaders’ portraits, angels, and even a diplodocus style dinosaur. engraved on one of the swords!  One contained the phrase “Calalus, the unknown land” which was used by believers as the name of the settlement. The objects also have Roman numerals ranging from 790 to 900 inscribed on them which were sometimes interpreted to represent the date of their creation because the numerals were followed by the letters AD. In 1933, archaeologists stumbled upon a genuine miniature Roman bust on a dig in Mexico. How or why it was there has yet to be fully explained, but the bust seems to predate the arrival of Cortes, eliminating the possibility that the Spanish brought it with them on an expedition. Roman coins have also been found at several dig sites in the United States.

The Romans may have learned how to navigate the oceans from the ancient Greeks. Many Greek city-states, like Athens, excelled in seafaring, and the Greeks knew that the world was round. Italian physicist Lucio Russo has suggested that a map by Ptolemy includes the Antilles, and Greek-Canadian scientist Dr. Minas Tsikritsis has suggested that a document by Plutarch describes in detail a journey from Carthage to Canada in A.D. 86.

The Carthage-Canada journey was not just a one-time thing, according to Tsikritsis. Greeks (and Carthaginians) visited Canada as part of a Cronus worship ritual and to get some sweet copper from Lake Superior and Royale Island. About 50,000 tons of copper may have been mined from these areas between 2400 and 1200 B.C.

 

5. The Irish

colorriot-j2201One of the first tribes Spanish explorers encountered in the New World was the Duhare. Right away, the Spanish noted that the Duhare were different from other Native Americans. Physically, they were much lighter-skinned and taller, and they were also more open to cooperating with the Spanish. In 2011, it was revealed that the Duhare language shared numerous similarities with Gaelic. Some cultural ties existed between the Irish and Duhare as well. An ancient Irish lullaby about being reared on deer’s milk was lived out by the Duhare, who bred and herded deer.

This belief is supported by the legend of Irish monk Saint Brendan, who was reputed to have gone on a lengthy sea voyage in the fifth century. Many believe his ultimate destination was North America, and one adventurer named Tim Severin even demonstrated that the journey would have been possible. Similarly, according to an old Welsh legend, a prince named Madoc was forced to flee his country due to conflicts caused by his father’s death in 1169. He sailed west and eventually made landfall in the Americas. He returned to entice more people to come with him, after which he and his company settled near modern-day Mobile, Alabama. Intriguingly, some ancient structures found on Lookout Mountain do resemble medieval Welsh constructions.

4. The Phoenicians

phoThere are multiple theories that ancient Phoenicians visited the Americas. One formerly popular theory suggests that the Phoenicians were responsible for establishing the major pre-Columbian Native American empires. This theory is heavily associated with the legend of Votan, a mythological figure who allegedly founded the first city of the New World in 1000 B.C. Curiously, this critically important figure is referenced only in European texts. There is growing archaeological evidence in support of the Phoenician theory including an intriguing Carthaginian coin that may feature a map of the world. The Carthaginians were descendants of the Phoenicians, so their knowledge of the New World would support the theory.

A more widespread theory concerns the Israelites. According to the Book of Mormon, three Israelite groups—the Nephites, Lamanites, and Mulekites—settled the Americas with a non-Israelite group called the Jaredites. They established major cities, wrote extensively in Hebrew and Egyptian, and imported flora and fauna from the Old World. These groups together were also said to be the ancestors of the Native Americans.

3. The Japanese

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Anthropologist Nancy Yaw Davis has suggested that the Zuni Native Americans are evidence of pre-Columbian Japanese influence in the Americas. She has theorized that in medieval Japan, natural disasters and shifting social structures compelled unsatisfied sailors to leave the nation for a new home. In 1350, Davis suggests, a group of Buddhist monks traveled to California. Once there, they moved east in search of the center of the universe, inviting natives into their tribe as they went. The large group ultimately settled in New Mexico and adopted the name “Zuni.”

The Zuni people of New Mexico have an unusually different language, culture, and DNA from the tribes around them. They actually have much more in common with the Japanese, with whom they share common words, activities, and religious symbolism. They even share genetic links, including a rare kidney ailment.

 

2. The Chinese

the forbidden city in beijing
From 1368–1644, China was ruled by the Ming Dynasty. As Europe was becoming dominated by ships and sails, China was also encouraging naval exploration, and one expedition may have led to America. The theory—which has been dubbed the “1421 theory,” the year the Chinese supposedly made landfall prior to Columbus in 1492—was popularized by British amateur historian Gavin Menzies, who noted similarities between Chinese and Native American culture. Menzies posits that during the 70 years before Columbus reached the New World, the Chinese were ruling major American tribes and interbreeding with the natives.

There’s not much evidence to support the 1421 theory, but what does exist includes old Chinese coins that were found scattered throughout the Pacific Northwest, an old Nez Pierce garment made of Chinese beads, a Chinese horseman painted in a Colombian cave, and a Chinese jade found in California, all of which allegedly date back to before Columbus’s arrival. The most compelling evidence comes from a Chinese map that was supposedly drawn in 1408 and depicts the entire world, including the American supercontinent. Many historians have dismissed this map as a Chinese copy of a 17th-century Jesuit map, mostly because China itself is so poorly detailed.

In the end, there’s no real way of confirming or dismissing the 1421 theory. The Qing Dynasty, which succeeded the Ming Dynasty, destroyed numerous Ming documents as a means of enforcing its rule.

 

1. Polynesians

Before Columbus arrived in the New World, the Polynesians somehow had access to sweet potatoes, which are native to South America. Sweet potatoes don’t reproduce by seed but by tuber, meaning that it would be almost impossible for the crop to make its way to the Polynesian islands without some sort of human help. Polynesians may have raided the coast of Peru and taken sweet potatoes back with them, or perhaps Peruvians brought them over on a hypothetical sea voyage. Either way, it’s unlikely that the tubers would have remained fresh over long distance voyages, so Hawaii may have been used as a middle ground. After all, the Maori and and Peruvian words for sweet potato are remarkably similar—kumara and kumar, respectively.

There is evidence suggesting that they reached Peru and appears to show through forensic analysis that Peruvians also may have a Polynesian link. http://www.nature.com/news/dna-study-links-indigenous-brazilians-to-polynesians-1.12710

There is also genetic evidence to suggest that Polynesians and Native Americans interbred, and this is especially true regarding the population of Easter Island. This group was made up of Polynesians and Native Americans but also Europeans, meaning that interbreeding may have only occurred after Columbus reached the New World.

As always, please visit www.AARONJUDKINS.com for the latest!

Image  —  Posted: August 27, 2014 in Archaeology
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10 Mysterious Lost Treasures of the World

by Jeff Kelly

As a kid, everyone, at some point or another, dreams of being Indiana Jones. Wouldn’t it be great to go on adventures and find lost treasures? Unfortunately, for starters, that’s not how archaeology works. And in addition, there are probably not many hidden treasures left, especially in this day and age when so much of the world has been explored and populated. But what if there are hidden treasures out there, just waiting to be found? Here’s a list of some long lost treasures that you could go out and find today.

 

10. The Alamo Treasure

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The Alamo is remembered for many things, including the famous battle cry reminding Texans they should remember it. The old Franciscan mission is located in San Antonio, and was the sight of one of the most famous battles in American history, when 188 men, including Jim Bowie and Davey Crockett, tried to fight off the powerful Mexican army of Santa Ana. What most people probably do not know is the legend of a massive treasure of gold and silver said to be buried somewhere on the grounds of the Alamo.

Many people, such as historical researcher and fortune hunter Frank Buschbacher, believe that in an effort to wage a revolution against Mexico and declare Texas independence, men like Bowie and Crockett had actually brought millions of dollars worth of treasure to the Alamo. The money was meant to raise an army and pay for their oncoming war. The treasure was called the San Saba treasure and it was lost when all 188 men lost their lives in that famous battle. Those who believe the treasure exists think the men buried it beneath the compound. Buschbacher has actually excavated areas around the Alamo, but not a trace of gold or silver has ever been found.

 

9. Dutch Schultz Treasure

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Dutch Schultz is one of the most famous mobsters in American history. He was a prohibition era gangster who ran in the same circles as guys like Lucky Luciano and Meyer Lansky. He was said to have amassed a massive fortune from his wicked deeds. His fortune vanished without a trace after he began to feel the heat of federal prosecution. It is believed that he decided to hide away his treasure somewhere in the Catskill Mountain range. When Schultz was gunned down in 1935, the location of his vast fortune died with him.

There are different opinions about what happened to his treasure, or even how much there actually was. Most estimates put his fortune anywhere between five to ten million dollars, which he stashed away in an iron box somewhere in the heavily forested area of Phoenicia, New York. Some believe his treasure was hidden close to Esopus Creek, which could explain why it has never been found. Over the decades since Schultz hid away his fortune, the area has had numerous floods, which in all likelihood would have washed away the treasure. Still, it’s interesting to think that a leisurely hike through that area of the Catskills could make you a millionaire.

 

8. Victorio Peak Treasure

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Victorio Peak is a part of the southern Rocky Mountains, located in New Mexico. Over the years, it has been used extensively by the United States government as it lies within the White Sands Missile Range where the government once tested nuclear weapons. Before it was taken over by the government, however, the area was open to the public. That is when—in 1937—Doc and Babe Noss entered the scene.

As the story goes, they were with friends deer hunting when Doc discovered an old shaft in the side of Victorio Peak. He and Babe returned later and explored the shaft finding skeletons, gold, jewels, and historical artifacts awaiting them. In 1938 the Noss’s established legal ownership of the find, and stories began to float that Doc had found either Casa del Cueva de Oro or the treasure of Don Juan de Onate, the man who founded New Mexico as a Spanish colony. In 1939, in an attempt to expand the passageway, Doc was advised to use dynamite, which went about as poorly as it could have, collapsing the shaft altogether. Noss was never able to regain entry into the mine, and was killed in 1949 by a would-be partner after he and Babe had divorced. To this day the Noss family continues to try to regain entrance to the shaft, but no gold has ever been found. There are some rumors that the government expanded the missile range to include Victorio Peak and took the gold to Fort Knox, but there is no documentation supporting this claim.

 

7. Montezuma’s Treasure

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Apparently if you want to find a lost treasure in the United States, your best bet is to check out the Rocky Mountains and the southwest, as this next treasure brings us to the town of Kanab, Utah, which is said to be the home of the Montezuma Treasure. Montezuma, the legendary leader of the Aztecs, was a man in possession of an incredible fortune. It was taken after he was killed during a battle with the Spanish led by Cortez. Millions of dollars worth of jewels and gold were removed from Montezuma’s treasure room by his own people in order to keep it away from Cortez.

So why do people think the massive treasure of an Aztec leader wound up in Utah? It turns out in 1914, a prospector found an etching made on the side of a cliff that matched a marking on an old treasure map that was said to lead to Montezuma’s treasure. The prospector—a man named Freddy Crystal—tracked down a descendent of Montezuma to interpret the map, and it was determined the topography did in fact match Kanab. Crystal actually convinced the townspeople to help him secretly search for the gold with the promise of sharing any findings, and eventually they did manage to find a system of caves and tunnels running through the mountain. It was laced with booby traps, but no gold was ever found, leading to the common belief that if the treasure had ever been there to begin with, it had either been moved by the Aztecs or discovered by some absurdly fortunate spelunker.

 

6. The Lufthansa Heist

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Anyone who has seen the movie Goodfellas is familiar with the Lufthansa heist, which is believed to have been the biggest cash robbery in United States history. It happened on December 11, 1978 at JFK International Airport, where an estimated five million in cash and $875,000 in jewels were taken. To put that in perspective, adjusting for inflation that’s a robbery worth over twenty million dollars today. The heist was carried out by mobsters including Henry Hill, who would later be portrayed by Ray Liotta, and to this day no jewels or currency have ever been recovered.

One of the reasons it has never been recovered, of course, is due to the very violent ends many of the men who participated in the heist met. These deaths were ordered by Jimmy Burke, who orchestrated the crime and realized the theft would generate a massive federal investigation. As part of his plan to clean up, he had almost every member of his crew murdered to keep them quiet. Some of the money from the heist was believed to have been spent and used in drug deals, but the vast majority was never found.

 

5. The Amber Room

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At first you might think something called the Amber Room is a high class gentleman’s club. It’s actually one of the most sought after lost treasures in history. The room, which is a small space created entirely out of amber panels with gold leaf and mirrors, was built in the 18th century for Friedrich I, the first king of Prussia. It was eventually gifted to Peter the Great, and remained in the possession of Russia until World War II. People who saw the Amber Room often referred to it as the Eighth Wonder of the World.

And then, it vanished. As it turns out, the curators in charge of protecting the Amber Room during the war attempted to hide it under wallpaper due to its fragile state, but that did not stop the Nazis from looting this nearly priceless treasure. It was then brought to Konigsberg Castle in Germany, but in 1944 Allied forces destroyed the city and left the castle in ruin—the Amber Room was lost forever. To this day, no one is entirely sure what happened to the room, though utter destruction seems the likeliest explanation. Still, it has become the subject of popular mythology. It also carries with it a supposed curse, as several people who either possessed or hunted for the Amber Room have met with untimely and very curious deaths.

 

4. Flor do Mar

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In 1502, a Portuguese ship called the Flor do Mar, or Flower of the Sea, was constructed. Commanded by Vasco de Gamma’s brother Estavao, the ship was part of a Portuguese voyage to India in 1505. The ship took part in several sea battles over the next six years until, in 1511, it was lost in a storm.

Now, the idea of a warship with such a storied history alone would make for this being an intriguing lost treasure, but of course there is more to the story. Most notably the fact that the Flor do Mar was carrying a boatload of spoils from a recent victory. The fortune on board was said to be enormous, making the Flor do Mar the most sought after lost shipwreck in history. The ship is said to have carried the treasure of the Melaka kingdom, located in modern day Malaysia, which reportedly included more than sixty tons of gold.

 

3. Leon Trabuco’s Gold

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Back in the early 1930s, a Mexican millionaire named Leon Trabuco arranged several secret and mysterious flights in the desert of New Mexico. At the time, the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression, and with the value of the dollar about to plunge, the price of gold was about to explode. So Trabuco and a few business partners were said to have secretly bought up as much gold as they could and smuggled it into the US, waiting for the gold prices to soar so that they could sell it and make an insanely large profit.

All told, it’s believed they accumulated more than sixteen tons of gold and hid it in that New Mexico desert. Rather than taking advantage and selling their gold, Trabuco and his partners held onto their bounty with the hopes the prices would continue to go up. However, they gravely miscalculated the impact of the Gold Act, as it carried with it the stipulation that private ownership of gold would be illegal, leaving Trabuco stuck. Like so many other treasures, this one supposedly carried with it a curse. Three of Trabuco’s partners were dead within five years, and when Trabuco himself died, the knowledge of the location of the giant stash of gold died with him.

 

2. Blackbeard’s Treasure

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In 1996, archaeologists discovered a shipwreck off the coast of North Carolina, less than a mile and a half from the shore and sitting a mere twenty-five feet (7.6 meters) below sea level. It is not particularly uncommon to find a shipwreck, but this is possibly one of the biggest nautical finds in the history of treasure hunting. That’s because many people believe the ship was the Queen Anne’s Revenge, also known as the flagship of the infamous pirate Blackbeard. In 1718, the Queen Anne’s Revenge blockaded the port of Charleston and soon after it ran aground on a sandbar.

So what’s the big deal? Well, for starters, Blackbeard was a wildly successful and rich pirate, and the location of his largest and most prized ship, some believe, means his vast fortune must have been located nearby on the North Carolina coast. Since the wreck was found—and it should be noted, it has not yet been confirmed to have been the Queen Anne’s Revenge—not an ounce of gold has been found near or on the ship. Before he died, Blackbeard was questioned about the location of his gold, leading him to say, “Only I and the devil know.”

 

1. Treasure of the Knights Templar

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In recent years, the Knights Templar and its treasure has been made famous in both Hollywood and in numerous books. It is one of the most famous and mysterious treasures in history. The Knights Templar formed in A.D. 1114, and over the following years accumulated a massive fortune, which has never been found.

In the early 14th century, the Templars were ordered to be arrested, and those who escaped this capture and torture reportedly gathered the remaining treasure and loaded it onto ships to unknown destinations. A common belief is that the remaining Templars took their treasure to Scotland, and from there, it eventually found its way to Nova Scotia. Rumors persist of a vast money pit on Oak Island in that province of Canada, where it is believed by some that the Templars hid their money amidst booby traps. The search has continued on Oak Island over the years, and in fact originally the treasure in the Money Pit was apparently believed to have belonged to the infamous Captain Kidd. But as more of Kidd’s treasure has been found, it is now believed that the Pit contains the Templar riches.

Jeff is a freelance writer from Texas.

Aside  —  Posted: June 27, 2014 in Archaeology
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Repost from s8int.com

PUEBLO PEOPLES ANCIENT DINOSAUR PETROGLYPH PHOTOGRAPHED IN NEW MEXICO?

Posted by  | Aug 27, 2013
Pueblo Peoples Ancient Dinosaur Petroglyph Photographed in New Mexico?


A few days ago I received a note from Jeremy Springfield who was in New Mexico on a kind of archaeological mission when he came across an apparently “ancient” petroglyph of a long necked dinosaur. His note follows but I was curious as to whether or not the fossils of long necked sauropods or similar dinosaurs had been found in New Mexico.

As it turns out New Mexico is one of the geographical areas in the U.S. where the highest number and diversity of dinosaur fossils is found, no doubt due to the desert like climate and lack of anything else to do but to dig. Sauropod fossils including some of the largest ever found have been discovered in New Mexico.

Coincidentally perhaps, one of the first images I came across with respect to New Mexico Dinosaurs was a depiction on the New Museum of Natural History and Science’s website depicting seismosaurus- in a pose that looks quite similar to the petroglyph. That comparison is shown below within Jeremy’s note-but first a bit on sauropods in New Mexico…. s8int.com

From About.com

“Any state with as many dinosaur fossils as New Mexico is sure to yield the remains of at least a few sauropods (giant, long-necked, elephant-legged plant eaters). Diplodocus and Camarasaurus were first identified elsewhere in the U.S., but the first specimen of the 30-ton Alamosaurus was discovered in New Mexico and named after this state’s Ojo Alamo formation.”

 

From New Mexico Museum of Natural History

New Mexico Super Giants – part of Dinosaur Century only at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science

ALBUQUERQUE, NM – April 12, 2012 -In the small village of San Ysidro, near Cuba, NM, one of the longest dinosaurs that ever walked the Earth was discovered. His name is Camarasaurus, he measures 55 feet long and is April’s featured dinosaur as part of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science Dinosaur Century Exhibit.

THE DISCOVERIES:

1979—Seismosaurus discovered

In 1979, Arthur Loy and Jan Cummings were hiking in the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) area called the Ojito, northwest of Albuquerque. Loy spotted the large bones first and casually called to his friend, “Come see what you make of this.” Cummings recalls the event: “I instantly recognized from thirty feet the obvious vertebrae of a large dinosaur. The articulated vertebral column looked like a huge chicken neck laying half in and half out of sandstone.”

For fear of the precious fossils being vandalized, Cummings and Loy kept their find secret, only sharing it with a small group of friends. In 1985, with increased recreational activity in the Ojito, they reported their awesome find to the BLM and the newly-established New Mexico Museum of Natural History. Excavation by a Museum crew led by then Curator of Paleontology David Gillette uncovered the partial skeleton of a huge new sauropod, later named Seismosaurus (“[earth]-shaking lizard”), one of the longest dinosaurs in the world, with a full body length of 110 feet.’

Possible Pueblo Culture Dinosaur Petroglyph Photographed in New MexicoCopy Right 2012 by Jeremy Springfield

Photo: Jeremy Springfield’s cropped photo compared with drawing of Seismosauras from New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science

On a trip to Hidden Mountain, just outside of Los Lunas, New Mexico, on October 20th, 2012, I took pictures of what is possibly a dinosaur figure petroglyph. This is found on a mesa about 16 miles west of Los Lunas, and requires more than a mile’s hike just to reach the foot of the mesa. The mesa contains scattered Native American art, contemporary defacements from the rare inconsiderate visitors, as well as evidence of ancient Hebrew visitation (definitely non-Mormon, FYI), and ancient scattered ruins / shelters on the summit.

The attached photos were taken on the south-facing ridge of the mesa’s summit, about 20 feet down from the ridge itself. The stone itself is quite protected from defacements and contemporary “tags” due to its difficult to reach location, which is only accessible by a perilous ledge some 14 inches wide that drops to a steep and deadly slope to the foothills some 400+ feet below.

I went for a day’s trip to photograph and film the area due to the ancient Hebrew decalogue stone that is on the mesa, and an apparant “star chart” dating to B.C. that is also found on the northern face of the summit. I was not expecting to see anything saurian in nature by way of petraglyphs. 

I do not know if that is indeed the case, but please consider the animal depicted to the left of the saurian-like creature.

It definitely does not look saurian in nature, providing a great contrast. On a stone just to the right of the one with the saurian-like image is found the very deer-like animal — which was the reason for my initial decision to brave the very dangerous ledge to photograph it. I could not see the saurian image from my original vantage point, so I was surprised when I got out to the deer-image and looked to the left.

This is near the Isleta Indian Reservation, home of the Tewa Indians. I have no idea if they have any art or mythology concerning any creatures that could be considered saurian in nature.

Anyhow, I present these to you for consideration. Thanks for your time and may your efforts to promote the truth find favor with God and man. Jeremy Springfield Oct. 23, 2012

Other Native American Dinosaur Petroglyphs

Thanks Jeremy for sending that along to us. Very Interesting! of course we have had quite a number of prior posts indicating that the indigenous people of the Americas were familair with dinosaurs including:

Did Ancient Americans Ride the Parasaurolophus Dinosaur or Did They Just Exaggerate the Size of Their Sheep? featuring a petroglyph from the Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the secretary…..1886.

This petroglyph clearly shows the ancient men riding the backs of huge animals and the glyph apparently includes a ladder for the purposes of climbing aboard.

 Be sure to visit www.AARONJUDKINS.com to see the new Man vs Archaeology film, “Hidden Mt. & the Los Lunas Mystery Stone” DVD.

http://www.christianapologeticsalliance.com/2014/05/07/convince-me-theres-a-god-archaeology-11/

Convince Me There’s A God- Archaeological Evidence? 

Link  —  Posted: May 7, 2014 in Christianity, Philosophy, Religion
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During the growth of the ancient civilizations, ancient technology was the result of incredible advances in engineering in ancient times.  These advances in the history of technology stimulated societies to adopt new ways of living and governance. However, many ancient inventions were forgotten, lost to the pages of history, only to be re-invented millennia later. Here we feature ten of the best examples of ancient technology and inventions that demonstrate the ingenuity of our ancient ancestors.

1. The ancient invention of the steam engine by the Hero of Alexandria

The ancient invention of the steam engine by the Hero of Alexandria

Heron Alexandrinus, otherwise known as the Hero of Alexandria, was a 1st century Greek mathematician and engineer who is known as the first inventor of the steam engine.  His steam powered device was called the aeolipile, named after Aiolos, God of the winds. The aeolipile consisted of a sphere positioned in such a way that it could rotate around its axis. Nozzles opposite each other would expel steam and both of the nozzles would generate a combined thrust resulting in torque, causing the sphere to spin around its axis. The rotation force sped up the sphere up to the point where the resistance from traction and air brought it to a stable rotation speed. The steam was created by boiling water under the sphere – the boiler was connected to the rotating sphere through a pair of pipes that at the same time served as pivots for the sphere. The replica of Heron’s machine could rotate at 1,500 rounds per minute with a very low pressure of 1.8 pounds per square inch.  The remarkable device was forgotten and never used properly until 1577, when the steam engine was ‘re-invented’ by the philosopher, astronomer and engineer, Taqu al-Din.

2. Is the Assyrian Nimrud lens the oldest telescope in the world?

Assyrian Nimrud lens the oldest telescope

The Nimrud lens is a 3,000-year-old piece of rock crystal, which was unearthed by Sir John Layard in 1850 at the Assyrian palace of Nimrud, in modern-day Iraq.  The Nimrud lens (also called the Layard lens) is made from natural rock crystal and is a slightly oval in shape.  It was roughly ground, perhaps on a lapidary wheel. It has a focal point about 11 centimetres from the flat side, and a focal length of about 12 cm.  This would make it equivalent to a 3× magnifying glass (combined with another lens, it could achieve much greater magnification). The surface of the lens has twelve cavities that were opened during grinding, which would have contained naptha or some other fluid trapped in the raw crystal.  Since its discovery over a century ago, scientists and historians have debated its use, with some suggesting it was used as a magnifying glass, and others maintaining it was a burning-glass used to start fires by concentrating sunlight. However, prominent Italian professor Giovanni Pettinato proposed the lens was used by the ancient Assyrians as part of a telescope, which would explain how the Assyrians knew so much about astronomy. According to conventional perspectives, the telescope was invented by Dutch spectacle maker, Hans Lippershey in 1608 AD, and Galileo was the first to point it to the sky and use it to study the cosmos. But even Galileo himself noted that the ‘ancients’ were aware of telescopes long before him. While lenses were around before the Nimrud lens, Pettinato believes this was one of the first to be used in a telescope.

3. The Oldest Calendar in Scotland

The Oldest Calendar in Scotland

Research carried out last year on an ancient site excavated by the National Trust for Scotland in 2004 revealed that it contained a sophisticated calendar system that is approximately 10,000 years old, making it the oldest calendar ever discovered in the world. The site – at Warren Field, Crathes, Aberdeenshire – contains a 50 metre long row of twelve pits which were created by Stone Age Britons and which were in use from around 8000 BC (the early Mesolithic period) to around 4,000 BC (the early Neolithic). The pits represent the months of the year as well as the lunar phases of the moon. They were formed in a complex arc design in which each lunar month was divided into three roughly ten day weeks – representing the waxing moon, the full moon and the waning moon. It also allowed the observation of the mid-winter sunrise so that the lunar calendar could be recalibrated each year to bring it back in line with the solar year. The entire arc represents a whole year and may also reflect the movements of the moon across the sky.

4. Ancient Roman Concrete was Far Superior to Our Own

Ancient Roman Concrete

Scientists studying the composition of Roman concrete, which has been submerged under the Mediterranean Sea for the last 2,000 years, discovered that it was superior to modern-day concrete in terms of durability and being less environmentally damaging. The Romans made concrete by mixing lime and volcanic rock. For underwater structures, the combination of lime and volcanic ash with seawater instantly triggered a chemical reaction in which the lime incorporated molecules into its structure and reacted with the ash to cement the whole mixture together. Analysis of the concrete found that it produces a significantly different compound to modern day cement, which is an incredibly stable binder. In addition, the ancient concrete contains the ideal crystalline structure of Tobermorite, which has a greater strength and durability than the modern equivalent. Finally, microscopic studies identified other minerals in the ancient concrete which show potential application for high-performance concretes, including the encapsulation of hazardous wastes. “In the middle 20th century, concrete structures were designed to last 50 years,” said scientist Paulo Monteiro said. “Yet Roman harbour installations have survived 2,000 years of chemical attack and wave action underwater.”

5. 2000-year-old metal coatings superior to today’s standards

2000-year-old metal coatings superior

Research has shown that artisans and craftsmen 2,000 years ago used a form of ancient technology for applying thin films of metal to statues and other items, which was superior to today’s standards for producing DVDs, solar cells, electronic devices and other products. Fire gilding and silvering are age-old mercury-based processes used to coat the surface items such as jewels, statues and amulets with thin layers of gold or silver. From a technological point of view, what the ancient gilders achieved 2000 years ago, was to make the metal coatings incredibly thin, adherent and uniform, which saved expensive metals and improved its durability, something which has never been achieved to the same standard today.  Apparently without any knowledge about the chemical–physical processes, ancient craftsmen systematically manipulated metals to create spectacular results. They developed a variety of techniques, including using mercury like a glue to apply thin films of metals to objects. The findings demonstrate that there was a far higher level of understanding and knowledge of advanced concepts and techniques in our ancient past than what they are given credit for.

6. The incredible 2000-year-old earthquake detector

The incredible 2000-year-old earthquake detector

Although we still cannot accurately predict earthquakes, we have come a long way in detecting, recording, and measuring seismic shocks. Many don’t realise that this process began nearly 2000 years ago, with the invention of the first seismoscope in 132 AD by a Chinese astronomer, mathematician, engineer, and inventor called Zhang (‘Chang’) Heng.  The device was remarkably accurate in detecting earthquakes from afar, and did not rely on shaking or movement in the location where the device was situated.  Zhang’s seismoscope was a giant bronze vessel, resembling a samovar almost 6 feet in diameter. Eight dragons snaked face-down along the outside of the barrel, marking the primary compass directions. In each dragon’s mouth was a small bronze ball. Beneath the dragons sat eight bronze toads, with their broad mouths gaping to receive the balls. The sound of the ball striking one of the eight toads would alert observers to the earthquake and would give a rough indication of the earthquake’s direction of origin.  In 2005, scientists in Zengzhou, China (which was also Zhang’s hometown) managed to replicate Zhang’s seismoscope and used it to detect simulated earthquakes based on waves from four different real-life earthquakes in China and Vietnam. The seismoscope detected all of them. As a matter of fact, the data gathered from the tests corresponded accurately with that gathered by modern-day seismometers!

7. Mythical sunstone used as ancient navigational device

Mythical sunstone used as ancient navigational device

An ancient Norse myth described a magical gem used to navigate the seas, which could reveal the position of the sun when hidden behind clouds or even before dawn or after sunset. Now it appears the myth is in fact true. In March 2013, a team of scientists announced that a unique calcite crystal, which was found in the wreck of an Elizabethan ship sunk off the Channel Islands, contains properties consistent with the legendary Viking sunstone and that shards of the crystal can indeed act as a remarkably precise navigational aid.  According to the researchers, the principle behind the sunstone relies on its unusual property of creating a double refraction of sunlight, even when it is obscured by cloud or fog. By turning the crystal in front of the human eye until the darkness of the two shadows are equal, the sun’s position can be pinpointed with remarkable accuracy.

8. The Baghdad Battery

The Baghdad Battery

The Baghdad Battery, sometimes referred to as the Parthian Battery, is a clay pot which encapsulates a copper cylinder. Suspended in the centre of this cylinder—but not touching it—is an iron rod. Both the copper cylinder and the iron rod are held in place with an asphalt plug. These artifacts (more than one was found) were discovered during the 1936 excavations of the old village Khujut Rabu, near Baghdad. The village is considered to be about 2000 years old, and was built during the Parthian period (250BC to 224 AD). Although it is not known exactly what the use of such a device would have been, the name ‘Baghdad Battery’, comes from one of the prevailing theories established in 1938 when Wilhelm Konig, the German archaeologist who performed the excavations, examined the battery and concluded that this device was an ancient electric battery. After the Second World War, Willard Gray, an American working at the General Electric High Voltage Laboratory in Pittsfield, built replicas and, filling them with an electrolyte, found that the devices could produce 2 volts of electricity. The question remains, if it really was a battery, what was it used to power?

9. 1,600-year-old goblet shows that the Romans used nanotechnology

1,600-year-old goblet shows that the Romans used nanotechnology

The Lycurgus Cup, as it is known due to its depiction of a scene involving King Lycurgus of Thrace, is a 1,600-year-old jade green Roman chalice that changes colour depending on the direction of the light upon it. It baffled scientists ever since the glass chalice was acquired by the British Museum in the 1950s. They could not work out why the cup appeared jade green when lit from the front but blood red when lit from behind. The mystery was solved in 1990, when researchers in England scrutinized broken fragments under a microscope and discovered that the Roman artisans were nanotechnology pioneers: they had impregnated the glass with particles of silver and gold, ground down until they were as small as 50 nanometres in diameter, less than one-thousandth the size of a grain of table salt. The work was so precise that there is no way that the resulting effect was an accident. In fact, the exact mixture of the metals suggests that the Romans had perfected the use of nanoparticles.  When hit with light, electrons belonging to the metal flecks vibrate in ways that alter the colour depending on the observer’s position.

10. The ancient Antikythera mechanism

The ancient Antikythera mechanism

The Antikythera mechanism was discovered in 1900 during the recovery of a shipwreck off of the Greek island, Antikythera, in waters 60 meters deep. It is a metallic device which consists of a complex combination of gears, and dates back to the 2nd century BCE. The Antikythera mechanism is one of the most amazing mechanical devices discovered from the ancient world.  For decades, scientists have utilized the latest technology in attempts to decipher its functionality; however, due to its complexity, its true purpose and function remained elusive. But in the last few years, a number of scientists appear to have solved the mystery as to precisely how this incredible piece of technology once worked. Peter Lynch, professor of meteorology at University College Dublin, explains: “The mechanism was driven by a handle that turned a linked system of more than 30 gear wheels…The gears were coupled to pointers on the front and back of the mechanism, showing the positions of the sun, moon and planets as they moved through the zodiac. An extendable arm with a pin followed a spiral groove, like a record player stylus. A small sphere, half white and half black, indicated the phase of the moon. Even more impressive was the prediction of solar and lunar eclipses.” Amazingly, the device even included a dial to indicate which of the pan-Hellenic games would take place each year, with the Olympics occurring every fourth year.  Just one small cog out of 30 remains a mystery and it is hoped that further research can place this last piece in the puzzle.

By April Holloway

repost from Ancient Origins

Quote  —  Posted: April 27, 2014 in Archaeology
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