Posts Tagged ‘Creationism vs Evolution’

By Robert Matthews, Science Correspondent Telegraph U.K.

Filed: 26/12/2004)

It is one of the best-known stories in science: the evolution of mankind from ape-like creatures to modern humans via knuckle-grazing cave-dwellers.

Now it has been blown apart by the first comprehensive study of all the fossils, which has revealed that they are probably all variants of Homo sapiens.

This is the type of dumb illustration often included with these stories & it was this time as well.

The discovery comes as fossil-hunters in Indonesia continue to defend claims to have found yet another new species of human, dubbed “Hobbit Man”. If true, the diminutive creature would join such famous specimens as Lucy, Java Man and the Neanderthals in the complex family tree of mankind.

 The findings have significant implications for the oftenbitter debates between fossil-hunters about thesignificance of their finds. While they no longer bicker over the so-called “Missing Link” – the now-derided idea of a creature linking humans to chimpanzees – experts continue to argue over the relationship between Australopithecines and early humans, and between Neanderthals and modern humans.

 The number of human species claimed by fossil-hunters now stands at around 10, while the total number of human-like species exceeds 50. Such claims have long been based on supposedly significant differences in sizes and shapes of fossil bones.

Now they have all been thrown into doubt by research showing that the differences lie within the range expected for just a single species.

Professor Maciej Henneberg, of the University of Adelaide, a world authority on fossil human anatomy, made the discovery after analysing the skull sizes and estimated body weights for all of the 200 identified specimens of human-like fossils known as hominims.

These span the entire history of humans, from the emergence of so-called Australopithecines with an upright stance more than four million years ago to neolithic modern humans from around 10,000 years ago.

Prof Maciej Henneberg

Prof Henneberg found that the fossils show clear evidence of evolution, with substantial increases in both skull sizes and body-weight. However, he also found that the fossils show no evidence of being anything other than a single species which had grown bigger and smarter over time.

According to Prof Henneberg, the much-vaunted differences in fossil size used to identify “new” species all lie within the normal range expected for one species. Plotted out as a graph, they form the classic bell-shaped curve found using data from modern humans.

Reporting his findings in the current issue of the Journal of Comparative Human Biology, Prof Henneberg concludes:

 “All hominims appear to be a single gradually evolving lineage containing only one species at each point in time.”

 The findings have big implications for the often bitter debates between fossil-hunters about the significance of their finds. Experts have long bickered over the relationship between Australopithecines and early humans, and between Neanderthals and modern humans.

Prof Henneberg has said that the new results suggest such disputes are meaningless, as they ignore the possibility of huge differences within the same species. He said they also raise doubts about the reliability of bones in identifying new human species: “There is no precise way in which we can test whether Julius Caesar and Princess Diana were members of the same species of Homo sapiens”.

According to Prof Henneberg, the study highlights the scant evidence for so many of the claimed new species of human. “Considering that there are only about 200 specimens in total, if these really do represent ten different species, that makes an average of just 20 specimens per species”.

He added that only a single skull had been found for the “Hobbit Man” of Indonesia.

Other authorities hailed Prof Henneberg’s findings as a much-needed reality check. “Clearly there is a need to be more aware of the possibility of variation – but that is not the inclination today,” said Geoffrey Harrison, emeritus professor of biological anthropology at the University of Oxford.

“It has been a problem because the discoverers have usually put so much effort into finding the evidence, so they want it to be important”.

Professor Chris Stringer, a leading expert on human fossils at the Natural History Museum, London, said even Neanderthals were not significantly different in skull or body size from modern humans.

However, he added that they do differ in other details, such as inner ear bones. He said: “The argument they are a different species is, of course, only a hypothesis, but comparisons of skull shape published recently certainly show they are as different from us as monkeys and apes are different from each other”.

According to Prof Henneberg, there are fewer than 30 examples of Neanderthals on which to base any conclusions. What evidence there is, however, is consistent with Neanderthals being from the same species as modern humans.

He added that the never-ending announcements of new species said more about those making the claims than about human evolution. “The problem is there are far more palaeontologists than fossil specimens”.

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Creationism vs. Evolution

Creationism

Creationism is the presuppositional belief in the literal Biblical Judeo-Christian interpretation in the creation of the universe and of all living things rather than evolution.

The Genesis Creation is a description of the creation of the world, as written in the first two chapters of the Book of Genesis in the Bible. The Biblical account is in stark contrast to evolution and to several other ancient Mesopotamian creation myths, while differing in its monotheistic outlook.

Chapter one describes the creation of the world by Elohim (God), by means of His spoken Word in six days and the designation of the seventh day as Sabbath, a holy (set apart) day of rest. Man and woman are created to be God’s regents over his creation. Chapter two tells of YHWH (God) creating the first man, whom he forms from clay (or dust) and into whom he “breathes” the “breath of life”.

The creation week consists of eight divine commands executed over six days, followed by a seventh day of rest.

First day: God (Elohim) creates light (“Let there be light!”)[Gen 1:3]—the first divine command. The light is divided from the darkness, and “day” and “night” are named.

Second day: God creates a firmament (“Let a firmament be…!”)[Gen 1:6–7]—the second command—to divide the waters above from the waters below. The firmament is named “skies”.

Third day: God commands the waters below to be gathered together in one place, and dry land to appear (the third command).[Gen 1:9–10] “earth” and “sea” are named. God commands the earth to bring forth grass, plants, and fruit-bearing trees (the fourth command).

Fourth day: God creates lights in the firmament (the fifth command)[Gen 1:14–15] to separate light from darkness and to mark days, seasons and years. Two great lights are made (most likely the Sun and Moon, but not named), and the stars.

Fifth day: God commands the sea to “teem with living creatures”, and birds to fly across the heavens (sixth command)[Gen 1:20–21] He creates birds and sea creatures, and commands them to be fruitful and multiply.

Sixth day: God commands the land to bring forth living creatures (seventh command);[Gen 1:24–25] He makes wild beasts, livestock and reptiles. He then creates humanity in His “image” and “likeness” (eighth command).[Gen 1:26–28] They are told to “be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it.” The totality of creation is described by God as “very good.”

Seventh day: God, having completed the heavens and the earth, rests from His work, and blesses and sanctifies the seventh day.

The Evolutionary Concept

Evolutionists base their scenarios on natural effects and chance. One of the concepts they most shelter behind while doing so is that of “considerable time.” For instance, the German scientist Ernst Haeckel, who supported Darwin, claimed that a living cell could originate from simple mud. With the realization in the twentieth century of how complex the living cell actually is, the silliness of that claim became apparent, but evolutionists continued to mask the truth with the “considerable time” concept.

By doing this, they are trying to free themselves from the problem by plunging it into a quandary instead of answering the question of how life could have come about by chance. By giving the impression that the passage of a long period of time could be useful from the point of view of the emergence of life and increase in variety, they present time as something that is always beneficial.

Modern scientists have demonstrated many times that it is impossible for that claim to actually happen. They have carried out controlled experiments in the most advanced laboratories, reproducing the conditions at the time when life first emerged, but these have all been in vain.

It is perfectly clear that even if all the conditions evolutionists insist on are realized, and even if millions of years are allowed to pass, such an experiment will be doomed to failure. Evolutionists try to conceal this fact, however, with deceptive explanations such as “all things are possible with time.” The invalidity of this claim, which is based on introducing an element of bluff into science, is also obvious. This invalidity can be quite clearly seen when this antiquated theory is critically analyzed.

The evolutionist historical perspective studies the history of mankind by dividing it up into several periods, just as it does with the supposed course of human evolution itself. Such fictitious concepts as the Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age are an important part of the evolutionist chronology. Since this imaginary picture is presented in schools and in television and newspaper stories, most people accept this imaginary picture without question and imagine that human beings once lived in an era when only primitive stone tools were used and technology was unknown.

Yet when archaeological findings and scientific facts are examined, a very different picture emerges. The traces and remains that have come down to the present—the tools, needles, flute fragments, personal adornments and decorations—show that in cultural and social terms, humans have always lived civilized lives in all periods of history.

Thousands of years ago, people lived in houses, engaged in agriculture, exchanged goods, produced textiles, ate, visited relatives, took an interest in music, made paintings, treated the sick, performed their acts of worship and, in short, lived normal lives just as they do today. People who heeded the prophets sent by God came to have faith in Him, while others worshipped idols. Believers with faith in God abided by the moral values commanded by Him, while others engaged in superstitious practices and deviant rites. At all times in history, just as today, there have been people who believed in the existence of God, as well as pagans and atheists.

Of course, throughout history, there have always been those living under simpler, more primitive conditions as well as societies living civilized lives. But this by no means constitutes evidence for the so-called evolution of history, because while one part of the world is launching shuttles into space, people in other lands are still unacquainted with electricity. Yet this does not mean that those who build spacecraft are mentally or physically more advanced—and have progressed further down the supposed evolutionary road and become more culturally evolved—nor that the others are closer to the fictional ape-men. These merely indicate differences in cultures and civilizations.

 www.aaronjudkins.com

 


It is generally recognized that the rocks have left us a record of human activity in the past. But in 1976, the finding of the Laetoli footprints in Africa literally put evolution back on the map. Mary Leaky discovered 70 human footprints in stone, some 3.7 million years old in tuff, in Tanzania known as the Laetoli tracks. But archaeologists have interpreted them the age to fit the social paradigm of human evolution.
They looked like they were made by modern human beings, but that created a problem. The depressions left by our ancestors were in a stratum dated at 3.7 million years. No modern human could have laid down that track since we were not around yet according to evolution.
Did humans evolve over millions of years through evolutionary change? Was life seeded from outer space by alien-like creatures with advanced technology? Or are we the product of special creation as outlined in Genesis?
Could these footprints in stone simply be as they appear – from a modern human? To the scientific community it’s unthinkable and unacceptable. Why? Because they would have to conclude that either modern man is much older than we have thought or that our dating techniques are faulty. Either way, there is a big problem for scientists. So, “interpretation” of evidence is an important tool that often comes to their rescue.

But this is not the last time that human fossil footprints have been found in ancient rock strata. Many track sites around the world point to a global phenomenon and continue to pose life’s four great questions (Who am I? Where did I come from? What is my purpose here? Where am I going)? Evolution embodies the frustrations of questionable identity, uncertain past, meaningless present, and a hopeless future.
It is apparent that as more discoveries are made, they will continue to contradict the accepted evolutionary model. In fact, more recent conclusions by scientists show that the fossil evidence is devastating to the evolutionary model and negates the entire concept of uniformity and the evolution of man.

I have spent the last 15 years excavating and researching this phenomenon which began on the Paluxy River near Glen Rose, Texas. I have interviewed on several occasions over the years the old-timers such as the late Emmitt McFall, who was born and raised in Glen Rose. He showed me personally where these giant human fossil footprints have been discovered and where others had been cut out in the 1930’s by the early researchers. I have also interviewed, the late Grover Gibbs who has co-authored the book, “Valley of the Giants”. He has also explored the region of the Paluxy River ever since he was a kid. Growing up he worked at the Coca-Cola bottling plant in Glen Rose. Occasionally, the young Grover gave tours to people who wanted to see the dinosaur tracks and human tracks.
In the late 60’s C.N. Doughtery (co-author of Valley of the Giants) moved to the Glen Rose area and began to research the tracks. In their book he explains that when asking the locals how big the human tracks were they would slowly spread their hands apart till about the 18-24 inch mark.

Could man once have been 12-18 feet tall?

Doughtery walked the river month after month waiting for the right conditions to spot these alleged goliath sized impressions. Two years later his efforts paid off and spotted not one but two giant men tracks. The prints measured 21 and one half inches long and 8 inches across the toes with a seven foot stride from heal to heal. A man with 22 inch feet and a 7-foot step would be approximately 12 foot tall!

But were these human tracks? Both Gibbs and Doughtery were convinced till their deaths.
If a footprint in stone does not appear to be made by a modern type human then it is not a problem for evolution. A footprint from an apelike creature in stone poses no problem. If the footprints around the world seem modern then they support Genesis. Were these footprints in ash and stone caught as the world heaved during the Flood? Is the fact that they are next to dinosaurs indicate we lived at the same time as the giant plants, insects and animals of the ancient world? The first several chapters of Genesis talk of man being giants. Goliath and the King of Bashan give us glimpses of these giants by placing them at approx. 10-12 feet tall.

Nevertheless, human fossil footprints present a huge problem and threat to the scientific community. Here’s why:

1.) If the tracks are millions of years old, why haven’t they eroded away millions of years ago? Running water over a print for 65 million years should have erased these prints so long ago. Since they were not eroded away, could it mean that they were placed down recently – perhaps only a few thousand years ago?
2.) Dinosaur tracks are found in the same limestone strata as the human fossil footprints. This indicates that dinosaurs and men lived at the same time and not 60 million years apart as evolution teaches!
3.) A human with a seven foot stride and 21 inch feet means that at least one 12 foot giant man lived at some point in prehistory.

What if the footprints are from a modern human?

The implications of the Paluxy river footprints are significant. Dinosaurs and giant human tracks in the same strata imply that:

A.) Evolution has to rewrite its theories and timelines so that humans and dinosaurs lived contemporaneously.
B.) Aliens seem less likely as an explanation for our existence.
C.) Greater confidence can be put in the book of Genesis, which states that God created all living things in 6 days.

Modern human footprints in stone agree with Genesis.

But this is only a brief introduction to this intriguing subject of human footprints in stone. If you would like to continue this study there is a good resource book on this entitled, “Evolution and Human Fossil Footprints”. You can get your copy today available at http://www.paluxydragon.webstore.com/